## Card index of didactic games and exercises to reinforce the concept of form

Didactic games and exercises

to reinforce the concept of form

“Find an item of the specified shape”

The child is asked to name models of geometric shapes, and then find pictures depicting objects similar in shape to a circle (square, oval, triangle, rectangle, rhombus).

“What figures does the machine consist of?”

Children must determine from the drawing what geometric shapes are included in the design of the machine, how many squares, circles, etc. it contains.

"Rug"

The child is asked to examine a rug made of geometric shapes and a set of components of this rug. Among the elements of this set, you should find the part that is not in the rug.

“Find an object of the same shape”

Children identify shapes in specific objects in the environment,

using geometric patterns. There are geometric shapes on one table, objects on the other. For example, a circle and round-shaped objects (ball, plate, button, etc.), an oval and oval-shaped objects (egg, cucumber, acorn, etc.).

“Which figure is the odd one out?”

The child is offered various sets of four geometric shapes.

For example: three quadrangles and one triangle, three ovals and one circle, etc.

It is required to identify the extra figure, explain the principle of exclusion and the principle of grouping.

Options:

- group real objects according to their shape according to 2-3 samples, explain the principle of grouping.

"Make a whole from parts"

Make a design of 2-3 geometric shapes according to the model.

Options:

⎯ make a design from memory, according to description;

⎯ create a geometric figure by selecting the necessary parts from the many proposed parts (8-9).

"Define correctly"

The child is asked to use the drawings to determine which geometric shapes the castle consists of.

"Visual dictation"

Children remember a pattern of 3-4 geometric shapes and put it together from memory.

Options:

⎯ children remember and reproduce combinations of figures (including three-dimensional geometric figures).

“Determine the shape of the object”

Cards with images of objects are laid out in front of the child: a TV, a house, a table, a chandelier, a floor lamp, a bed, etc. The teacher suggests using the appropriate slot on a punched card with cut out geometric shapes to select furniture whose image is similar to this geometric shape.

“Guess the geometric figure by touch”

Buttons in the shape of geometric shapes are sewn onto colored cardboard.

For each card, a cover is sewn into which it is easy to insert and remove the card. The cover should not be transparent.

Children's age: 3-7 years.

Goals and objectives:

Develop fine motor skills of the hands.

Learn to recognize and name geometric shapes: 2 junior and middle groups – circle, square, triangle; senior and preparatory school groups - circle, triangle, quadrangle, rectangle, polygon.

The child must determine by touch which figure is in the case, then take it out and check it. As new figures are learned, figures are added.

“It rolls - it doesn’t roll”

Purpose of the game: to introduce three-dimensional geometric bodies - a cube, a ball, and a cylinder for older children.

Equipment: cubes and balls, cylinders of different sizes and colors.

Progress of the game: show the children a ball, then a cube, accompanying the actions with the words: “This is a ball, it rolls - like this. The balls are smooth. Touch it. And this is a cube. Can the cube roll? No, he can not. But it has corners, touch them.” Do the same with the cylinder. Give the children one cube and one ball each and invite them to play with them: put them on the floor, on the table, on top of each other, roll them, etc. Then ask them to put the objects in boxes: balls in one box, cubes in another, cylinders in a third .

"The Figures Play Hide and Seek"

Purpose of the game: to introduce three-dimensional geometric bodies - a cube and a ball and teach them to select the necessary shapes.

Equipment: medium-sized cardboard box (1 - 2 pcs.) with square and round slots; cubes and balls of the same size and shapes: square, circle, triangle, rectangle, Magic chest of drawers with slots for shapes.

How to play: Show the children the box and teach them to push the balls into the slots - first the balls, then the cubes. Then offer to play hide and seek: “The toys decided to play hide and seek. Let's help them hide in a box." Give the children blocks and balls and ask them to take turns pushing them into the corresponding shaped holes in the box. This game can be repeated many times. Children push shapes of squares, triangles, etc. into the magic chest of drawers through the slots. Then the chest of drawers opens and everyone checks together whether the children have correctly placed the figures in the houses.

The teacher shows a figure, and the child says what a shape such a figure can be (for example, a cap is triangular; a refrigerator is rectangular; a ball is round, etc.)

“Find an object of the same shape”

Goal: to teach children to identify the shape of specific environmental objects using geometric patterns. Children learn for the first time to compare the shape of objects with geometric figures.

Material. Geometric shapes (circle, square, oval, triangle, rectangle), round-shaped objects (balls, spheres, buttons), square (building material, scarf, lotto cards), triangular (building material, flag, carrots), oval (egg, cucumber, whale toy).

Progress of the game: Geometric shapes lie on one table, objects on the other. The teacher asks the children to come to the table (they stand around the table), draws attention to various objects lying on the table, and explains the task. First he shows a figure and invites one child to name its shape, then find an object of the same shape on another table and put it next to it. If the child correctly finds the object and places it near the corresponding figure, all children clap their hands. In one lesson, each child can choose no more than three forms. If he is mistaken, then the teacher asks the child to circle the figure and object with his finger. This technique helps the child complete the task correctly.

"Find out the figure"

Purpose of the game: improve the perception of shape, develop voluntary attention, speed of movements.

Material: cards with images of geometric shapes - square, triangle, circle or objects similar to these shapes - wheel, pyramid, modules.

Progress of the game: The teacher introduces the children to the prepared geometric shapes, which he places in different parts of the room, and explains the rules of the game. At a signal, children move randomly around the hall, performing various movements. After the teacher names one of the figures, for example “Square”, the children should quickly build around this figure.

"Wonderful bag"

Purpose of the game: To train children to determine what kind of object it is by its characteristic external features, that is, by its shape.

How to play: To play, you will need a fabric bag made of thick, opaque fabric, into which objects of different shapes and textures are placed. I suggest identifying each item by touch without looking into the bag. You can also hide geometric shapes in it, the child must guess by touch which shape is hidden.

"Who will collect the pieces first"

Didactic tasks: consolidating knowledge of geometric shapes, developing an understanding of specific instructions, developing concentration, general and fine motor skills.

Equipment: geometric shapes scattered on the carpet (circles, squares, triangles, rectangles, ovals).

Progress of the game. The teacher gives each of the players cards with a figure that he must collect.

The child who quickly and without mistakes collects his pieces wins.

“What does it look like?”

Didactic tasks: consolidate knowledge of geometric figures, develop observation and thinking.

Progress of the game. Ball game. Children stand in a circle. The leader is in the center of the circle. The host throws the ball to the player and asks a question.

Listen guys

What will we play?

I'll ask questions now

And someone will answer!

1. The sun in the sky, what figure does it resemble? (circle)

2. What does the window look like? (square)

3. When you build a house, what figure do you put in place of a roof? (triangle)

4. If you approach the door, what figure do you remember? (rectangle)

5. When you take the ball, what shape do you remember? (ball)

6. What does a spyglass look like? (cylinder)

7. Without which figure it is impossible to build a house from a construction set? (cube)

Any object surrounding a child has a shape, so there can be a lot of questions.

Rules: You must answer by throwing the ball to the teacher.

Options: 1. Questions can be asked in reverse order: what does a square, circle, rectangle, triangle, ball, cube, cylinder look like?

2. The driver can be a teacher or a child.

Game “Which piece is the extra piece”

The child is offered several strips, for example:

on the 1st: 4 large round buttons and 1 small round button;

on the 2nd: 3 red figures and 1 green;

on the 3rd: 2 squares and 1 triangle.

The teacher asks:

—Which figure is superfluous here? Why?

Strips with signs of differences in shape and size are used. For example:

on the 1st:

on the 2nd: etc.

Game "Let's build a fence"

The game can be played outside near the sandbox. A set of geometric shapes meets the program requirements for each age group.

*Goals*

: clarifying knowledge about geometric figures and shapes of objects. Exercises in distinguishing figures and shapes of objects. Exercises in distinguishing shapes (circle, square, triangle), shapes of objects (round, square, triangular) and naming them correctly. Development of logical thinking.

**Equipment****:**

sandbox, molds of different colors according to the number of children, scoops according to the number of children.

**Progress of the game**

The teacher gathers the children near the sandbox and shows them the already familiar molds. At the teacher’s suggestion, children tell what color the molds are and what shape they are (round, square, triangular). The teacher invites the children to build a fence of Easter cakes around the sandbox, alternating the Easter cakes in this way: round, square, triangular, round, etc. You can remind children how to make Easter cakes correctly so that they don’t fall apart. The children build the fence together and decorate it with natural materials in bulk.

Games "Magic figures"

The game can be played during a walk near the sandbox or in the experimentation corner in a group room.

**Target****:**

clarifying ideas about geometric shapes

**Equipment****:**

sandbox or container with fine sand, sheets of paper according to the number of children, glue stick.

**Progress of the game**

The teacher invites the children to a sandbox or container with sand. He gives the children sheets of paper and quickly draws geometric shapes on them with a glue stick (in accordance with the program requirements for each age group). Then the teacher invites the children to place the sheets on the ground or on tables and cover them with a layer of sand, and then carefully lift the sheets and shake off the sand from them into a sandbox or container. Together with the children, the teacher is surprised that geometric shapes have appeared on the sheets. At the teacher’s suggestion, the children tell what shapes each of them has.

To complicate the game, you can draw not figures, but various images from geometric shapes, for example, a house from a square and a triangle or a snowman from three circles of different sizes. Then the children tell what kind of images appeared on their sheets, what figures they consist of.

Once the images are dry, you can use them to develop your sense of touch. Then, at the teacher’s suggestion, the children close their eyes, and the teacher places a sheet with a “sand” figure in front of each of them. Children feel the pictures, name them, and then open their eyes and check the correctness of their answer.

Boards "Seguin"

An educational game - a puzzle for children "SEGUIN'S Boards", in meaning reminiscent of the methods of the famous teacher Edouard Seguin and the early development methods of Maria Montessori. The set contains 9 tablets - playing fields, each of which has 8 “boards” with empty squares, ovals, circles, rectangles, diamonds, triangles in the middle. The game is intended for children over 3 years old, but can also be played by adults.

The game is complicated by different patterns - the figurine must be inserted, taking into account the color, design, and ornament.

Classes with Seguin boards develop attention (search for figures of the same color), memory, color perception, promote the study of geometric shapes (square, circle, triangle, rectangle, rhombus, oval), stimulate the development of imaginative thinking (put together a whole pattern, ornament, drawing from parts ).

Children begin to consciously distinguish the shapes of objects already at the 2nd year of life, but are able to remember and correctly name a circle, rectangle or square only by the age of 3. This period is the most favorable for studying elementary geometric figures.

Children of this age examine objects more carefully, identifying their distinctive features such as size, color and, of course, shape. But such skills require constant training.

Classes and didactic games aimed at developing concepts about the shape of objects should be conducted weekly, gradually complicating the tasks and thereby improving the children’s skills.

The teacher must not forget that children will learn the material more easily if they have bright and beautiful toys at hand. They will not only help you focus attention, but will also develop a desire to play with them, and this is so important in early preschool age.

By the age of 4–5, children’s understanding of basic geometric shapes is much broader, so they can be introduced to objects such as rhombus and trapezoid. At the same time, you can not say the name of the figure for now, but simply identify its distinctive features.

Later, in older preschool age, children will be able to independently compare objects and find similar figures among them.

### Amazing circles

**Purpose of the game:**

introduce children to such a geometric figure as a circle, repeat the names of primary colors (red, blue, green and yellow) and sizes of objects, develop fine motor skills of the fingers, memory, the ability to focus attention on a specific object, teach how to fold a whole from the available parts at hand ( for example, a snowman).

**Equipment:**

mugs cut out of paper, different colors (red, blue, yellow and green) and different sizes (large, medium and small).

**Age**

: 3 years.

When the children concentrate on the lesson, they should be asked what they saw on their tables, what is the name of this figure. If the guys are familiar with the circle, they will immediately give the correct answer, but if not, then you need to explain it to them.

Then the leader checks how well the kids remember the names of the colors. When the children are ready to play, you can tell the rules of the game, which consist of quickly saying the name of a certain figure, what size and color it is.

The kid who gave the most complete and correct answer becomes the leader, chooses the next figure of a certain color and asks the rest of the children to find a similar one on their table and raise it above their head, then describe its properties in detail.

Thus, the drivers are constantly changing, and the teacher has time to monitor each child.

At the end of the game, you can ask the children to assemble a snowman themselves, using only 3 circles of different sizes. Eyes, nose and mouth can be drawn with a pencil.

**Progress of the game:**

The teacher invites the children to play together, but first they need to take their places at the tables and carefully examine the prepared material.

### Colorful squares

**Purpose of the game:**

introduce children to such a geometric figure as a square, repeat the names of the main colors and sizes of objects, develop fine motor skills of the fingers, memory, and observation skills.

**Equipment:**

cardboard squares of different colors (red, white, blue, yellow and green), different sizes (large, medium and small); several circles made of the same material; sample square measuring 30 x 30 cm.

**Age**

: 3 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The leader invites the children to listen to the rules of the game, with the help of which they will learn to correctly identify squares and find them among other figures.

To do this, the teacher shows the children a large sample square and asks them to carefully examine and tell what is special about this figure. If the children did not see that the sides of this figure are the same, then this must be mentioned, since this is the main distinguishing feature of the square.

When the children have mastered this material, you can ask them to classify all the figures on their tables into categories. Place red squares on one side, blue squares on the other, and green squares on the third. When the work is completed, the teacher should check it and praise each child.

You can give the task to distribute the available squares into groups depending on their size. Here the children will also get 3 categories.

By the end of the game, the children, as a rule, learn the name and shape of the square very well, so you can do a little test: ask the kids to mix the squares and circles together, and then in a short time arrange the circles separately and the squares separately.

### Magic rectangles

**Purpose of the game:**

introduce the children to the rectangle, repeat the names of the primary colors (red, blue and yellow) and the sizes of objects, develop fine motor skills of the fingers, memory, and observation skills. Develop children's speech and ability to construct complex sentences.

**Equipment:**

rectangles cut out of cardboard, different colors (red, blue, yellow and green) and different sizes (large, medium and small) for each child; circles and squares for comparison; large rectangle 20 x 40 cm for sample.

**Age**

: 3 years.

**Progress of the game:**

Children have sets of rectangles of different sizes and colors on their tables. The teacher invites the children to carefully examine them and say which figure, studied earlier, the rectangles are more similar to - a circle or a square (the children say that they are a square).

The next step is to compare the rectangles in size and say that they can be used to build a large pyramid. You can offer to do this task yourself, but first the leader explains that the largest rectangle should be at the bottom, then a smaller one, and the smallest one at the very top.

When the children learn to select rectangles from the proposed shapes, you can invite them to play a game, the rules of which are to clap their hands when a rectangle is shown, and sit quietly if it is any other shape.

The teacher takes turns showing the children different figures, and they, in turn, clap or do not react to it, depending on what was shown.

### Triangles, or roofs

**Purpose of the game:**

introduce children to such a geometric figure as a triangle, repeat the names of primary colors (red, blue and yellow), as well as the sizes of objects, develop memory, observation, and fine motor skills of the fingers.

**Equipment:**

cardboard triangles of different colors (red, blue, yellow and green) and different sizes (large, medium and small); a set of cubes of different shapes for building a house, a toy (baby elephant).

**Age**

: 3 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The leader gathers the guys together and offers to help the baby elephant build a house. To do this, you need to lay out the walls, don’t forget about the window and door. Then the teacher asks what is missing in the built house, to which the children answer: “There is no roof.” Now you should ask the guys what shape the roof should be - round or triangular. When the kids answer the question, you can ask them to choose the required cube from the set and complete the house. This is how children come to the conclusion that the triangle is similar to the roof of a house, which helps them better remember the feature of the figure.

After this, it is necessary to consolidate the children’s knowledge about the new shape of the object for them - triangular. To do this, you should offer to play together. The rules of the game are as follows: the leader shows a figure of any shape (triangle, square, circle, rectangle), and the guys find the same one in their sets and say its name. If the teacher shows a triangle, then it must be placed separately from the others. Thus, the guys get two groups of objects: triangles and all the rest.

If the children have well understood the difference between a triangle and, for example, a rectangle, then you can ask them to independently find the differences, which lie primarily in the number of sides and angles in the figure.

### Build a house

**Purpose of the game:**

develop fine motor skills of fingers, memory, the ability to focus attention on a specific object, teach weaving with various threads, develop children’s speech, teach them to distinguish shapes such as triangle, square and rectangle.

**Equipment:**

cardboard plates measuring 20 x 30 cm with holes made at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other, parts for assembling the house (square, window, large triangle), thick threads for weaving, a sample of assembling the house for each child.

**Age**

: 3–4 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The teacher invites the children to carefully examine the sample that he shows to everyone, and the items that are prepared on the tables.

The next step is for the leader to choose from those offered only those parts that will be needed to assemble the house (triangle, square, rectangle). Next, you need to take a thick thread and place the square on the board so that the holes in the parts match. Now the guys carefully sew the part. Then the roof and window are attached in the same way.

Making a house in this way not only develops fine motor skills of a child’s hand, but also helps to become more attentive and learn to focus on an object for quite a long time.

### Name the figure

**Purpose of the game:**

develop imagination, memory, attention, the ability to identify an object by its characteristics, increase children's vocabulary, develop logical thinking, systematize children's knowledge about geometric objects such as triangle, rectangle, circle and square.

**Equipment:**

a large sheet with drawn cats made from different geometric shapes: heads - circles, noses - triangles, eyes - ovals, mouth - rectangle, etc. You can depict several cats, made in different ways.

**Age**

: 4–5 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The teacher shows the children a poster and asks them to carefully look at the drawings, then say what is shown on them. Despite the fact that the animals are made differently, the children say that these are cats, since they have peculiar triangle ears that only these animals have.

Then the leader tells the kids that they need to name the figures that make up the cats and compare the proposed drawings with each other. Once the children have completed the tasks, you can ask them to draw any other animal on the board with chalk, using only rectangles, squares, circles and triangles. This task is quite difficult, so the kids will need the help of a teacher.

### Do it yourself!

**Purpose of the game:**

to develop in preschoolers imagination, speech, the desire to use existing knowledge, strengthen counting skills to 10, the ability to play in a group of peers, and develop independence in collecting various geometric shapes.

**Equipment:**

10 counting sticks for each child, patterns for collecting square, rectangle, triangle, pentagon and trapezoid or rhombus.

**Age**

: 5–6 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The teacher gathers the children and invites them to play a game together that will require their concentration and observation. First, the children carefully examine the patterns of collecting squares, rectangles, and triangles from counting sticks (if the group of children is sufficiently developed, you can invite them to assemble a trapezoid or pentagon on their own).

Then the children pay attention to how many sticks are needed to assemble the various shapes, and begin to make squares on their own. After the teacher checks and evaluates all the work, you can begin to make a rectangle or diamond.

Thus, during one lesson, children not only assemble geometric shapes from available material, but also better assimilate their distinctive properties.

A similar game can be organized a little differently. First, you should divide the guys into 2 teams and come up with a name for each that would be related to the theme of the game. Next, the teacher offers groups of children tasks that can be as follows:

1) add as many shapes as possible from the 10 available sticks;

2) what figure can be made from 5 counting sticks? Collect it;

3) how to divide a square using 1 stick into 2 triangles?

4) try to collect 2 squares using only 7 counting sticks;

5) other tasks.

### Find all the triangles

**Purpose of the game:**

continue to familiarize children with such geometric shapes as square, rectangle and triangle, consolidate knowledge about primary colors (red, blue, green, yellow), make children want to play together, develop thinking, memory, attention, speech.

**Equipment:**

an equilateral triangle with sides 30–40 cm long, drawn on whatman paper or cut out of thick cardboard. Its peculiarity is that it is divided by three thick lines emerging from the corners of the triangle; 2-3 small triangles for each baby.

**Age**

: 5–6 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The leader invites the children to look at the prepared figure and say its name. Then the teacher draws special attention to the children that this triangle is divided into parts by three lines. It is necessary to say what shapes were obtained.

If it is difficult for the children to see these triangles, then they can be painted in different colors, which will help count the number of figures obtained. When the children complete the task, you can ask them to independently put together a new shape from 2-3 triangles (this can be a triangle, a square and a rectangle).

### Guess the item

**Purpose of the game:**

develop imagination, memory, attention, the ability to play in a group of peers, the ability to identify an object by its characteristics, increase children's vocabulary, develop logical thinking, systematize children's knowledge about geometric objects such as triangle, rectangle, circle and square.

**Equipment:**

several toys familiar to children, a bag in which the prepared items will be placed.

**Age**

: 6–7 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The leader invites the children to play scouts, but to do this they need to choose a driver. Then you can explain the rules of the game, which are to guess the object by touch.

The teacher brings into the group a bag of toys that the children have already seen before and are familiar with. Then the driver puts his hand into the bundle and selects one of the toys, but does not take it out, but tries to identify it by touch.

If the baby guesses what kind of item is in the bag, he takes it out and gets a chance to guess another toy, but no more than two times in a row. Then the turn passes to another participant. If the child could not guess the first time, the teacher begins to describe in detail all the properties of the object, and the rest of the participants try to guess what exactly is there.

If this game turns out to be quite simple for kids, then you can complicate it a little by putting toys in a bag that the kids have only seen a few times. If they are able to do this, then the teacher can, without showing the object, talk about it in detail, and the children ask leading questions. The child who guesses what is being said the fastest wins.

### What figure is missing?

**Purpose of the game:**

develop memory, attention, observation, quick thinking, the ability to find small changes that have occurred in objects, repeat the names of colors and their shades, and develop children’s speech.

**Equipment:**

a sheet of whatman paper divided into 12 equal rectangles so that there are 4 cells horizontally and 3 vertically; 12 small cards - rectangles, squares, circles and triangles of different colors.

**Age**

: 6–7 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The leader invites the children to carefully examine the figures that lie on the tables and say their name and color.

Then the teacher, with the help of the children, fills in the empty cells of the table. To do this, the leader asks one of the children to pick up any free piece and place it in a free cell. When the cards run out, the children carefully look at the resulting canvas and remember in what order the objects are located.

After this, the leader asks the children to close their eyes for a few seconds. At this time, the teacher removes one of the cards, then invites the children to restore the order of the figures. If the guys cannot remember which figure and what color was in the cell, then they can calculate it, because there were equal numbers of all the figures and they were all different colors.

To test children's observation skills, you can place 2 identical cards in the cells while the children close their eyes, and then ask them to find them. The fastest, most observant and dexterous guys win the game.

### Find the odd one out

**Purpose of the game:**

teach children to group objects according to common characteristics, develop the ability to identify objects that do not meet certain requirements.

**Equipment:**

various geometric shapes for hanging on a magnetic board - squares of different sizes, rectangles, quadrangles and pentagons of different shapes, equilateral, isosceles, rectangular triangles, circles, ovals, etc.

**Age**

: 6–7 years.

**Progress of the game:**

The leader places the prepared geometric figures one at a time on the magnetic board and asks the children to say what they are called. The teacher then places several shapes in a row (for example, a square, a quadrilateral, a diamond, and a triangle) and then asks what is missing. If the guys find it difficult to answer, then the leader can offer to count the number of sides and angles of the proposed figures.

At the next stage, the teacher lays out the geometric shapes in a different order (for example, among triangles of different shapes he places a circle or an oval) and invites the children to determine what is superfluous there and why. You can offer other combinations of figures:

1) circles, ovals of different sizes and a square;

2) quadrangles, and triangle, pentagons;

3) rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezoid and triangle;

4) other options.

A similar game can be played not only with geometric shapes, but also with various objects that have different properties.