To keep your eyes healthy: visual gymnastics in kindergarten

Goals of eye gymnastics in a preschool institution

Visual gymnastics is one of the effective means of preventing eye diseases, as well as correcting existing problems. In kindergarten, it belongs to modern health-saving technologies (along with dynamic pauses, self-massage, breathing exercises, etc.).

It is interesting that the first exercises designed to maintain visual acuity were invented even before our era by Indian yogis. While creating complexes for the whole body, they did not forget about the eyes.

In a preschool institution, eye gymnastics is very important because it performs a number of tasks:

  1. General improvement of the visual system, prevention of various disorders in the functioning of the visual organs: strengthening the eye muscles, relieving tension, preventing fatigue, improving blood circulation in the eyes.
  2. It is an effective addition in the treatment of existing diseases: childhood myopia, farsightedness, astigmatism.
  3. Forms in pupils ideas about the importance of taking care of their health, in particular, about the organs of vision. The children learn about the value of vision.
  4. Has educational value. By performing visual exercises, children learn to navigate in space: they reinforce the concepts of “right” and “left,” “up” and “down,” and “turn.” In addition, performing gymnastics contributes to the development of coherent speech, enrichment of vocabulary, and reinforces familiar concepts about the structure of the world around us.

Visual gymnastics teaches preschoolers to take care of their eyes and understand the value of vision

Indeed, visual gymnastics is very important when working with modern preschoolers. Working as a kindergarten teacher, on Mondays I often talked with the children about what they did over the weekend. Many enthusiastically began to retell the content of the cartoon or computer game they had watched. In the preparatory group, some children even brought mobile phones and tablets with them to kindergarten, gathering a group of peers around them. All together they began to look at the screen with a flashing image. Of course, I stopped such “games”. By the way, it is interesting that according to the stories of many children, parents also spend a lot of time at home, straining their eyesight: TV, social networks, etc. (“Mom was on the phone all day”).

TV, computer and mobile phones from an early age have a detrimental effect on the vision of preschoolers

Are there any contraindications for doing the exercises?

If there are complications caused by myopia, some conditions may be aggravated by exercise. This:

  • retinal detachment (increased blood circulation and mechanical impact are not allowed);
  • eye infections (conjunctivitis, blepharitis);
  • eye injuries;
  • severe myopia.

For strabismus and amblyopia (the so-called “lazy eye”), standard exercises designed for myopia are also not used. There are special sets of eye exercises for them.

The exercises included in children's complexes for myopia have a certain focus. Some exercises are designed to reduce eye fatigue, others to strengthen the eye muscles, and others to improve blood circulation or accommodation. For example, some scientists suggest psycho-emotional causes of eye muscle tension in children.

Remember that the choice of a specific set of exercises for myopia should rest entirely with the ophthalmologist. In this case, the general physical and psycho-emotional state of the child, the health of his eyes and the degree of myopia, as well as the lifestyle and age of the young patient should be taken into account.

Before performing exercises, you should definitely undergo a diagnostic examination and consult with an ophthalmologist.

Types of visual gymnastics in preschool educational institutions

Several types of visual gymnastics are practiced in kindergarten:

  1. Without attributes (exercises are simply performed according to the teacher’s verbal instructions) and with objects and visual aids (children follow with their eyes a moving toy, “run” their eyes along the indicated trajectory, etc.).
  2. Preventive (aimed at preventing the development of eye diseases) and corrective (slows down the development of myopia, farsightedness, astigmatism, etc.).
  3. Passive (only exercises for the eyes) and active (combined with general developmental exercises, using the muscles of the arms, legs, back, etc.).

It is advisable for the teacher to conduct various types of eye gymnastics with preschoolers, alternating them wisely.

How to do eye exercises correctly? Set of exercises

For maximum efficiency, starting each lesson, especially at home, is recommended with a light massage with the pads of the fingers of the periorbital area and eyeballs through the eyelids, which improves blood supply and tissue nutrition not only in these areas, but also in the eyeball (G.G. Demirchoglyan, A .G. Demirchoglyan 2000) – all exercises must be done only as prescribed by a doctor and very carefully!

Exercise 1 . Using the pads of your index fingers, with gentle pressure and vibration, glide over the skin in the superciliary area, moving from the center to the temples.

Exercise 2 . Using the pads of your index fingers, with gentle pressure and vibration, slide along the skin at the lower edge of the eye socket, moving from the center to the temples.

Exercise 3 . Using the pads of your index fingers, with gentle pressure, glide over the skin in the middle part of the upper eyelid, moving from the inner corner of the palpebral fissure to the outer one.

Each exercise is performed for 3 minutes . Next, repeat all the exercises, but using the pads of the index and middle fingers, i.e. expanding the massage area. The time to complete each exercise is 3 minutes. The use of hardware techniques and special masks at home in children is undesirable - since appropriate research and testing have not been carried out. Now let's move on to eye exercises.

Methods of visual gymnastics

Visual gymnastics is carried out from a very early preschool age. You should do healthy exercises with your children two to three times a day. The duration of classes in the junior and middle groups is two to three minutes, in the senior group - four to five minutes.

When performing exercises, you must follow certain rules:

  1. Guys must stand or sit. At the same time, you should not strain your body.
  2. The head takes a fixed position (unless, of course, the gymnastics is active - it is not combined with head turns to strengthen the neck muscles).
  3. If some children wear glasses, they should be removed.
  4. Baby's breathing should be uniform and deep.
  5. The last exercise is best done by blinking, and after finishing the gymnastics, it is advisable for kids to stretch well.

Glasses must be removed during eye exercises.

To arouse the maximum interest of preschoolers in eye exercises, it should be carried out in a playful way and use imagery. For example, you can not just ask children to close their eyes tightly, but turn into eagle owls or cats who have just woke up. In addition, the children always like to do exercises accompanied by funny poems.

You can do visual gymnastics at any time: while walking, in your free time, or organically include it in any activity (cognition, speech development, productive activity). At the same time, the topic of exercise is connected with the topic of educational activities directly. For example, if children study insects, then the children can follow the flight of a toy bee with their eyes. If during the actual educational activity we are talking about transport, then you can offer an exercise with a short poem:

  • They rush through the city from morning until night
  • Cars of all brands, very beautiful.
  • They will go left, right, around -
  • Cars are free both night and day.

At the same time, children perform eye movements according to the text (left, right, circular), and at the end they blink.

If the lesson is associated with eye strain (productive activity), then eye gymnastics is carried out in the middle of the lesson. If the educational activity itself does not involve a load on the eyes (speech development, reading fiction), then a separate exercise for the eyes can be done in the second half of the lesson: the children will receive a kind of relaxation and will be able to get a little distracted.

You can find a lot of ideas for visual gymnastics while walking. For example, a teacher invites preschoolers to look down at the grass, then up at the sky, look for birds there, then back at the grass. In the warm season, you can watch a butterfly flapping its wings and offer to wave its eyelashes.

You can find a lot of ideas for visual gymnastics while walking

You can train children's eyes in your free time, in the morning or evening. The teacher offers the children ophthalmic simulators or specially alternates certain games: sorting small objects by shape or color (the muscles of the eye responsible for near vision work) and throwing balls into a basket or skittles (while the child looks into the distance). In sunny weather, you can use an ordinary mirror and chase sunbeams around the room: the kids will follow them with their eyes.

You can train your visual muscles even with the help of ordinary sunbeams

Features of working with preschoolers of different ages

When organizing gymnastics, it is important to take into account the age of preschoolers. For example, two-year-old children are unlikely to understand the verbal command “rotate with our eyes”: the teacher must use an object that the children will follow with their eyes. Moreover, it should not be an ordinary pencil, but a “magic wand” or a pointer with a picture or toy attached to it. An interesting idea is to put on a finger puppet.

Another effective way to interest a younger preschooler is phrases like “Can you do that? But I can do it!” After such words, inquisitive little ones are ready to repeat everything after the teacher.

Forcing a small child to do something if he is not interested is unacceptable and, moreover, will not bring any benefit.

As for the older preschool age, here you can motivate the children with an educational conversation: tell them about the structure of the human eye, about the need to care for it. Curious students will also be interested in learning the differences in the structure of the human eye and various animals (for example, a crocodile’s eyes are located on the sides of the head and have three eyelids). The teacher should discuss with children how harmful it is to watch cartoons and sit for long periods of time playing computer games. After such a conversation, preschoolers themselves will want to do useful exercises.

If, when conducting visual gymnastics with younger preschoolers, the teacher must demonstrate each exercise himself and do it together with the children, then at the senior level the teacher only needs to demonstrate the execution of the actions once. In the future, verbal instructions or reading a poetic text (if it accompanies the exercise) will be sufficient.

Games and exercises for the development of visual perception in preschool children

Goal: To introduce parents to games and exercises that help prevent visual impairment and correct vision in children.

Objectives: Establish partnerships with the family of each child; unite and direct the efforts of parents to develop and strengthen vision in children; introduce them to forms of games and exercises.

Master class plan.

  1. Greetings.
  2. "This is interesting" message.
  3. Recommendations from ophthalmologists.
  4. Games and exercises (exhibition of exercise equipment).
  5. Demonstration and performance of exercises together with parents “Gymnastics for

eye" (set of exercises).

  1. Testing.
  2. Presentation on the topic “Corrective-pedagogical work on the development of visual

perception in children with visual impairments"

1. Greetings

Good afternoon, dear parents! We are glad to welcome you to our master class. You know that our group is attended by children with visual impairments. We want to introduce you to the work we do with children. We will also be happy to provide you with sets of exercises, games and show you how to use them correctly. The importance of play in the life of a preschooler is difficult to overestimate; first of all, play is the leading activity in preschool age. Through play, a child learns about the world around him and learns to live in this world. The game satisfies children's curiosity, involves the child in the active exploration of the world around him, and helps to master ways of understanding the connections between objects and phenomena. In addition, the game, as a pedagogical phenomenon, is a means of education, a teaching method, a form of organizing activities, and a means of correction.

Therefore, during the day, at all regular moments, we carry out games, exercises, and eye gymnastics, which helps strengthen the eye muscles. I offer you interesting information.

2. Message "This is interesting"

Statistics show that over the past 5 years, the level of eye diseases and pathologies among children has increased 1.5 times. This is primarily due to stress caused by working on a computer, violation of sanitary standards of consecration, unhealthy diet, as well as deteriorating environmental conditions.

In addition to the annual examination, parents should pay close attention to their child - his behavior may indicate incipient vision problems. If the baby squints when looking at distant objects, if he bends low over the table when drawing or reading, often stumbles and drops objects, tries to sit closer to the TV, constantly tilts his head to the side, reaches for a distant object, and, having picked it up, loses it. he is interested, if his eyes often water, then this indicates the need to visit an ophthalmologist.

In addition, the child must be tested regularly, approximately once every three months, at home: one of the baby’s eyes must be covered with a thick sheet of paper or cardboard and asked to draw something, color a picture or assemble a mosaic. Then you need to do the same thing, covering the other eye.

A child with normal vision should be able to complete the task. There is another effective test, although it is suitable for children who can read. The baby needs to be brought to the bookcase at a distance from which good vision allows him to easily read the title of each indicated book - first with one eye, then with the other. It is also advisable to choose several books with a single-color cover and ask him to name the color - this is necessary in order to make sure that he distinguishes colors, that is, does not suffer from color blindness.

And one more nuance. Even if the next visit to the ophthalmologist showed that the child’s eyes are healthy, this does not guarantee that this will always be the case. The child’s body is very fragile, it needs support, so at your next consultation you can discuss with the ophthalmologist taking vitamins for the eyes, for example, based on blueberries. Such drugs strengthen the visual system and help maintain sharp vision.

It is important to remember that treatment of any eye diseases and pathologies will be much more effective if impending vision problems are noticed in time.

And now, I will introduce you to the ophthalmologist’s recommendations, after which you can express your opinion whether you agree with them or not.

3. Recommendations from an ophthalmologist

— Parents are now keen on early education of children and introduce their child to reading too early, but they must keep in mind that if a child’s accommodation is poorly developed by the age of seven, and they are already starting to read, they are at risk of myopia.

— Watching TV shows and playing computer games have become increasingly common leisure activities for children of all ages. But according to medical recommendations, preschoolers can watch TV no more than half an hour a day and at a distance of at least 3 meters.

- The room must have low lighting - you cannot look in complete darkness. Starting from school age, you can watch for an hour at a time, but it’s better with breaks. When looking at the screen, you need to keep your head straight, not to the side.

- When watching a movie, let your eyes move around the entire screen instead of looking intently at any one part. During long scenes or between movies, gently close your eyes briefly to rest your eyes, relax your muscles, and strengthen your retinal nerves. It is necessary for parents to follow these rules themselves and teach their children.

— If a child is prescribed glasses, he must not only read and watch TV with glasses, but wear them all the time. Preschoolers are prescribed glasses mainly for constant wear.

— As for computers, communication with it should be excluded until three years. From three to seven years old, you can spend no more than 15 minutes in front of the display, and no more than twice a week. And at the same time, the distance to the screen should be at least 60-70 cm.

— The development of myopia is caused by:

1. Poor illumination of the workplace, especially with artificial lighting.

2. Unsuitable or poorly adapted furniture for classes. It is especially important that in a home environment the sizes of furniture also correspond to the height of children.

3. Incorrect sitting position of children while reading and writing is the most important factor in the development of myopia. The bad habit of reading and writing with your head bowed, hunched over, tilted to the side, lying down, or in awkward positions contributes to weakened vision.

4. The development of myopia more often occurs with an incorrect daily routine, alternating study and rest.

Parents share their experiences in raising children. They say they are also concerned that many children are developing vision problems. They support our work and want to help their children. I offer them games and exercises that help correct vision.

4. Games and exercises

Dear parents, at home, playing with your children, you can solve several problems at once - communicating with children and developing their vision. Organize a game. Most likely, the child will not have an interest in the game unless you specifically organize it. Therefore, strive to ensure that any action is played out and included in some interesting plot. For example, in front of the child there are not just rattling boxes, but there are hidden grains with which to feed the hungry chickens. You can draw chickens or find appropriate toys. Let your child find the solution himself. Each game is educational in nature and serves to achieve a specific goal. In order for the goal to be achieved and the lesson to be useful, give the child maximum independence. Don't complete the task for him; let him come to the right decision himself. To help you, I present a set of games and exercises that you can use. I also suggest you play.

Games. "Clothespins"

Attach clothespins to a cardboard circle to create a “sun” or “flower”. You can design the toy in the shape of a hedgehog, with clothespins acting as needles. Suggest removing all the clothespins and then reattaching them. You can stick numbers on cardboard and invite the child to attach as many clothespins as the number on the cardboard. If there are a lot of clothespins and they are of different colors, then the children themselves can come up with a lot of crafts. The game develops fine motor skills and visual-motor coordination.


Mix several sets of buttons and have your child sort them. The game develops visual attention and perception. Place buttons in piles (towers). Compete with the child whose pile will be higher. The game develops visual-motor coordination and hand motor skills. Place a variety of buttons on the table. Ask your child to choose all the red ones; all small; all buttons have two holes, etc. The game develops visual attention.

"Compare pictures"

All children love to look for differences in two seemingly identical images. This fun from our childhood also develops visual attention and observation skills well.

"Curly tables"

You can find tables on sale or make them yourself, in the cells of which different figures are drawn randomly. The child’s task is to draw a certain simple sign in each of the figures (a dot in a circle, a diagonal line in a square, etc.). This game develops the ability to switch visual attention.

“Where, whose house?”

Draw or stick some animals and houses for them. From each animal to the house, draw ornate paths of different colors. Let your child determine who has which house without tracing the lines with their finger. If this is difficult, then at first you can allow the use of a finger or pencil, but remove it over time. This exercise develops the functions of following lines with the eyes and develops visual attention.


For this game you will need text from a magazine or newspaper, printed in a fairly large font. Ask your child to cross out (underline or circle) each “o”. Then be sure to check, count the errors and write down the result. When doing this exercise every day, always change the letters. When this task becomes easy for the child, make it more difficult by offering to cross out all the “o” letters and circle the “c” letters. It will be more interesting for the child if an adult performs the same task in his own text.


On a large piece of paper, write numbers from 1 to 10 in a chaotic order. Ask your child to find all the numbers in order. To complicate the task, numbers can be drawn in different colors and different sizes. The game develops visual attention.


v Move your gaze horizontally to the left all the way, hold for 2 seconds, move your gaze to the right all the way, hold for 2 seconds, return your eyes to their original position, repeat the cycle the required number of times.

* Move your gaze vertically up all the way, hold for 2 seconds, move your gaze down all the way, hold for 2 seconds, return your eyes to their original position, repeat the cycle the required number of times.

* Move your gaze diagonally to the left – all the way up, hold for 2 seconds, move your gaze diagonally to the right – all the way down, hold for 2 seconds, return your eyes to their original position, repeat the cycle the required number of times.

* Move your gaze diagonally to the right - all the way up, hold for 2 seconds, move your gaze diagonally to the left - all the way down, hold for 2 seconds, return your eyes to their original position, repeat the cycle the required number of times.

* Move your eyes up and towards your nose, so as to see the bridge of your nose, hold for 2 seconds, move your eyes down, bringing them towards your nose, so as to see its tip, hold for 2 seconds, return your eyes to their original position. Repeat the cycle the required number of times.

* Place your index finger in front of your eyes at arm's length. Slowly bring it closer to the bridge of your nose, constantly fixing your gaze on its tip, then, without taking your eyes off the tip of your finger, slowly move your finger to its original position. Repeat the cycle the required number of times.

* Shift your gaze from a near object to a distant one and back. For this we have “bees”, “circles”, “balls”, “butterflies”, they should be at eye level at a distance of 25 cm.

* Close your eyes tightly. Maintain this position for 3 - 5 seconds, then open your eyes for 3 - 5 seconds. Repeat the cycle the required number of times.

5. Consultation on the topic “Gymnastics for the eyes”

The child’s body is very susceptible to all kinds of influences; it is in childhood that special attention should be paid to the development of vision. Proper organization of activities at home is important for protecting children's vision. At home, children love to draw, sculpt, and at an older age, read, write, and play with construction sets. But we must remember that the total duration of classes during the day should not exceed 40 minutes at the age of 3 to 5 years, and one hour at 6-7 years. It is advisable that children study both in the first and second half of the day, and that between these classes there is time for active games and spending time in the fresh air. Same types of activities associated with eye strain should be interrupted every 10-15 minutes to rest the eyes.

Prevention of incorrect visual habits in a child begins at the age of 2-3 years. Children are taught to blink periodically, not to hunch over, are not given the opportunity to look closely, and are asked to change their gaze more often from near to distant objects and back.

It is very important to teach your child how to watch TV and play on the computer correctly. The duration for preschoolers and primary schoolchildren should not exceed half an hour. The optimal distance to the TV screen is from 2 to 5 m. The computer monitor screen should be located at arm's length (40 cm). In this case, you need to sit not on the side, but directly in front of the screen. The room should have natural or artificial lighting. It is important that light from other sources does not reach your eyes.

Despite the growing popularity of “educational” games, one should remember the sense of proportion; the duration of such games is no more than 20 minutes at a time and more than 60 minutes throughout the day. Watching TV, playing video games and playing on the computer is prohibited for children under three years of age.

Adults should consider the following:

-from 1.5 years old, the child should hold the book at a distance of 20-25 cm from the eyes;

- when drawing, you cannot block the light source with your hand;

- the room where the child spends most of his time should be well lit.

It is recommended to accustom a child to eye gymnastics in a playful way from the age of one. Visual gymnastics helps:

-improve blood circulation in the blood vessels of the visual organs;

-relieve eye fatigue after reading or working with small parts.

General recommendations for eye exercises for preschoolers:

1.Look into the distance for 1-2 minutes, looking away from objects;

2. Blink your eyes - 20 times;

3. Let your eyes “jump off the stairs” - look up and quickly look down -

To relieve eye strain when working at a computer:

1. Every 1-2 hours, switch your vision: look into the distance for 5-10 minutes.

2.Close your eyes to rest for 1-2 minutes.

Gymnastics for tired eyes:

1. Take a deep breath, closing your eyes as tightly as possible. Tighten the muscles of your neck, face, and head. Hold your breath for 2-3 seconds, then quickly exhale, opening your eyes wide as you exhale. Repeat 5 times.

2.Close your eyes, massage the brow ridges and the lower parts of the eye sockets in a circular motion from the nose to the temples.

3.Close your eyes, relax your eyebrows. Rotate your eyeballs from left to right and right to left. Repeat 10 times.

4. Place your thumb at a distance of 25-30 cm from your eyes, look with both eyes at the end of the finger for 3-5 seconds, close one eye for 3-5 seconds, then look again with both eyes, close the other eye. Repeat 10 times.

5.Place your fingertips on your temples, squeezing them lightly. Blink quickly and lightly 10 times. Close your eyes and relax, taking 2-3 deep breaths. Repeat 3 times.

Each of these sets of eye exercises will take no more than 5 minutes. And the benefits you will receive are difficult to overestimate.

The simplest way to rest your eyes is to close them for a more or less long period of time and mentally imagine something pleasant. This method serves as first aid and should be used first.

Our group has purchased and manufactured vision correction machines. Now I suggest you familiarize yourself with them and try to perform several exercises. These exercise machines help strengthen the eye muscles and relieve eye tension. We use gymnastics performed in the presentation.

Parents share their impressions of exercises on simulators.

In conclusion, I suggest you get tested and find out about the condition of your vision.

6. Test for myopia or farsightedness

Look at this picture with each eye in turn. If symbols seem clearer to you on a red background, then there is a high probability of myopia. And if it’s green, then we can assume that you have farsightedness.

Astigmatism test

To perform the test, walk 2-4 steps away from the monitor, close one eye and look at the picture (then do the test for the other eye). If it seems to you that some of the lines are darker than others, or, conversely, more blurred, you need to consult an ophthalmologist.

Astigmatism test

To perform the test, walk 2-4 steps away from the monitor, close one eye and look at the picture (then do the test for the other eye). If it seems to you that some of the lines are darker than others, or, conversely, more blurred, you need to consult an ophthalmologist.

Amsler test

This test allows you to identify one of the eye diseases - pathology of the central part of the retina (“macula”).

The drawing should be approximately 30 cm from your eyes. Cover one eye with your hand, and with the other, look at the black dot in the center for a few seconds. Then repeat the same for the second eye. If all the grid lines are straight and there are no curvatures or gray spots, then your central retinal area is normal.

And I, dear parents, would like to give you the following advice:

During the first twelve years of a child’s life, his visual organs develop intensively. During this period, the eyes are especially susceptible to the negative influence of numerous factors, such as increased stress (computer, reading, TV), injuries, infections, unfavorable environment, and many others.

How can you help a developing child’s body resist such influences from the external environment and prevent the deterioration of the baby’s vision?

* Any physical activity helps the baby's eyes work better. Make your child run, jump, and play outdoor games more. Playing sports will also benefit him.

* Be sure to monitor your child’s posture. After all, if a child sits with a “crooked” back, his blood supply to the brain is disrupted, which, in turn, provokes vision problems.

* Do not allow your child to sit in front of the TV or computer for a long time without interruption. At the same time, remember that it is best to sit in front of the screen not on the side, but directly opposite. You should also not watch TV in a dark room, as the eye will be forced to constantly change focus and strain, adapting to the light. This can lead to quite unpleasant consequences.

* And one more important point: to train your baby’s vision, it is useful to play with bright, moving toys that spin, jump and roll.

* Do eye exercises with your child regularly. Turn it into a fun daily game!

Thank you for participating in the event!

Examples of exercises

When conducting gymnastics with younger preschoolers, the exercises should be extremely simple, but at the same time entertaining. You can use the following options:

  1. "Pussy eyes." The teacher asks the kids to imagine themselves as kittens. Children open their eyes wide and then close them. After that they look up, down, to the side.
  2. "Swing". The teacher invites the children to play with their eyes on a swing: fly up high and then fall down (moving their eyes up and down).
  3. "Carousel". Circular movements with eyes.
  4. "Day and night". The child holds his finger in front of him at arm's length. At first he looks at him with both eyes, then only with the right one while the left one is closed and vice versa.
  5. "Hide and seek." The guys need to close their eyes tightly for a couple of seconds, and then open them for the same amount of time (the motivation is “you’re hiding and no one can see you”).
  6. "Clothespin." Using the thumbs and index fingers of both hands, you need to squeeze the skin between the eyebrows (as if holding it together with a clothespin).
  7. "Butterfly". The teacher invites preschoolers to blink their eyelashes, like a butterfly flaps its wings.

Starting from middle age, exercises should be more complicated:

  1. "What changed?" While walking, invite the children to look into the distance at the children from the neighboring playground or at the passers-by from the group window and remember their location. Then the kids close their eyes for about 10 seconds, and then say how the location of the people has changed.
  2. "Geometric figures". The teacher asks preschoolers to imagine a large circle, and then circle it with their eyes clockwise and counterclockwise. Similarly, you can “draw” a square, and then move your gaze from the upper right corner to the upper left, etc.
  3. “We make faces.” The teacher invites the children to portray an animal, for example, a hedgehog. At the same time, it is stipulated that he stretches his lips forward, and his eyes “run” left and right, then up and down.
  4. "Expansion of visual fields." The child places the index fingers of both hands directly in front of him. Each finger is watched by its own eye. Then the fingers slowly spread apart, and the eyes continue to follow them.
  5. "Pinocchio." The guys look at the tip of their nose. Then the teacher counts to 5 (in the senior group - up to 10, in the preparatory group - up to 20) and asks the children to imagine that their nose is growing. They should follow its tip with their eyes - it seems to be moving away from them. After this, preschoolers also observe its decrease.
  6. "Shooting with the eyes." The child suddenly turns his gaze in any direction and says “bang-bang.”

In addition, from a young age you can perform visual gymnastics to a poetic text. At first these are short works, then longer ones. You can use the following options:

Table: "Bump"

One day in the fall there was a pine cone hanging in the forest in plain sight. The cone looked at everyone and hung quietly. Look at the index finger of an outstretched hand
Moose said it was lowDownward eye movements
And the little bunny is high,Eye movements upward
Squirrel said - close,Movement of the eyes to the tip of the nose.
And the hedgehog is far away.Eye movements into the distance.

Table: "Vegetables"

The donkey walks around, chooses, and doesn’t know what to eat first.Circle your eyes
The plum is ripe at the top,Look up
And nettles grow below,Look down
On the left - beets, on the right - rutabaga,Look left-right
On the left is a pumpkin, on the right is a cranberry,Left - Right
Below is fresh grass,Look down
On top there are juicy tops.Look up
I couldn’t choose anything and collapsed on the ground without strength.Close eyes

Table: “Christmas tree”

There is a big Christmas tree, this height.View from bottom to top
It has large branches that are this wide.View from left to right
There are even cones on the tree,Look up
And below is the bear’s den.Look down
The clubfoot sleeps there all winter and sucks his paw in the den.Close your eyes, then blink 10 times

The following examples refer to active visual gymnastics (it is accompanied by body movements) to a poetic text.

Table: "Rain"

The first drop fell: drip-drip And the second ran: drip-dripTap your finger on your palm
We looked at the skyLook up
The droplets began to sing drip-dripKnock on the head
Our faces got wet, we wipe themRub your face and eyes gently
Shoes - lookLook down at your feet
They became wetPoint to feet with hands
Let's move our shoulders together and shake off all the dropletsShake your shoulders
Let's run away from the rainRunning in place
Let's sit under a bushTo squat

Table: "Spring"

Everything has woken up from sleep, which means spring has come to us.Sipping
The sun is getting warmer, let's go for a walk soon!Throwing the fingers out of the fist while simultaneously spreading the arms to the sides
On the right - the first flowers appeared on the meadow.The right arm is moved to the side while fixing the direction with the gaze
On the left is a fast stream from a hillock to a drip.The left arm is moved to the side, fixing the direction with the gaze
We made a boatPlace your palms in front of your chest
They decided to let it into the stream.Removing folded palms forward from yourself
Sail away, my little boat, straight to the blue river!We wave our palms, saying goodbye to the boat
This is how fun it is to play and walk on a spring day! The earth breathes freshness, I will breathe “spring” too! Light bouncing in place

Table: "Cat"

Now the window has opened,Spread your arms to the sides
The cat went out onto the ledge.They imitate the soft, graceful gait of a cat.
The cat looked up.Looking up
The cat looked down.Looking down
Here I turned to the left.Looking left
She watched the flies.The gaze traces the “fly” from the left shoulder to the right
She stretched, smiled and sat down on the ledge.Children squat.
She turned her eyes to the right and looked at the cat.They look straight
And covered them with her hands.Cover your eyes with your hands

Video: a teacher conducts visual gymnastics with preschoolers

Video: girl doing eye exercises (7 exercises)

Complex E.S. Avetisov, performed at school and at home

Designed to prevent myopia in school-age children. It helps strengthen the eye muscles and accommodative apparatus, improve the nutrition of eye tissue. Recommended for children with a genetic predisposition to myopia and young patients with the first signs of the disease. Avetisov’s set of exercises can be used to maintain visual acuity in children experiencing severe visual stress, as well as in cases of developed myopia. You should start the exercises with small loads, gradually increasing them over the course of a week.

A standard set of exercises for children can be “cut” in half on the first day of classes, then gradually, over the course of several days, bringing it to the desired level. Exercises should be performed regularly, without missing a day - otherwise the effect will be partial or absent altogether:

  1. Lean back in your chair, take a deep breath and bend forward to exhale. 5-6 repetitions.
  2. Lean back in your chair and close your eyes tightly for 5-6 seconds, then open them. Do 5-6 repetitions.
  3. Blink your eyes quickly for 15 seconds and 10 seconds without blinking. 3 - 4 repetitions.
  4. Sitting position, hands on the belt, turn your head to the right and look at the elbow of your right hand, then to the left and look at the elbow of your left hand. Initial position. 5-6 repetitions.
  5. Sitting position. Raise your eyes from the floor up to the ceiling. Rotate your eyes clockwise and counterclockwise - 6 rotations in each direction.
  6. Stretch your arms forward and look at your fingertips, raise your arms up as you inhale, watching your fingers without raising your head. Lower your arms as you exhale. 4-5 repetitions.
  7. Extend your hand in front of you, raising your thumb and fix your gaze on its tip for 3-5 seconds, then slowly bring your finger closer to your nose until it starts to double, without taking your gaze away from it and move your hand back to its previous position (up to 8 repetitions).
  8. Standing position. Slowly move your half-bent hand from right to left, fixing your gaze on the tip of the raised thumb and back. 10-12 repetitions.
  9. Close your eyes and use the tips of your index fingers to lightly massage them through your eyelids for 30 seconds.

During the period of mastering the complex, it is necessary to control that the child performs all movements correctly .

Exercises to complicate step 5 of the complex - “draw” geometric figures in space with your eyes: circle, square, triangle, vertical and horizontal figure eight.

Using visual aids during visual gymnastics

When performing visual gymnastics, visibility is of great importance. It helps to interest children and make exercises more effective. After all, in preschoolers (especially at a younger age), visual-figurative thinking predominates, and many exercises, especially such as rolling the eyes, turning the eyes, are much easier for them to do with a visual reference in front of them.

Many exercises are easier to perform when there is a reference point in front of your eyes.

The following types of visual aids are used to conduct gymnastics in kindergarten:

  1. Guide items. They are distributed to all children or the teacher shows the object to a group of children. In the first case, each preschooler holds a small object in front of him (for example, a hair tie with a butterfly, it is convenient to put it on his finger) and moves it according to the teacher’s instructions. At the same time, the gaze follows him. Such things are again selected according to the topic of the lesson (the mentioned butterfly elastic band will come in handy, for example, when studying the topic “Insects”). In any case, the object should be large enough and bright, not blending in color with the teacher’s clothes and the surrounding environment. The simplest version of such a visual reference is a colorful magic wand (pointer). You can also use finger puppets. You can attach a picture to the end of it. When the teacher shows the landmark, he places the kids with lower visual acuity closer to him, while the rest sit or stand behind.
  2. Scheme. Such manuals are intended for older preschoolers, because they are already developing abstract thinking. They show different types of eye exercises. Looking at the picture, the child can understand exactly how to perform the actions.
  3. Signal marks. They are designed for exercises when the gaze switches from a near point to a far point. A mark with a diameter of about 0.5 cm is attached to the window glass at eye level of the preschooler. The child stands very close to her (distance - approximately 20 cm). He should look at the landmark for a couple of seconds, and then turn his gaze to a distant point on the street. The teacher asks the preschooler to tell him what interesting things he sees there.
  4. Wall-mounted and ceiling-mounted ophthalmic simulators. This is a kind of trajectories along which children's eyes “run”. For example, from one animal or fairy-tale character you need to get to another along a bright (usually broken) path. At the same time, the child’s head and torso may move. Each track has its own color. Exercises are usually performed collectively.
  5. Individual ophthalmic simulators. They are outline pictures of many individual small elements - butterflies, leaves, Christmas trees, etc. (at an older age, these can be letters or numbers). The child should visually trace the outline; you can also help with your finger. In this case, the preschooler holds the picture in front of him at arm's length.

Photo gallery: visual aids for performing visual gymnastics

The signal mark is needed to switch gaze from a near point to a far point

The simulators are designed for individual work

The child moves the object according to the teacher’s instructions and follows it with his eyes

The schemes are designed to work with older preschoolers

Children should visually trace the path from one character to another

Video: preschoolers perform eye exercises (an exercise with a visual reference - a homemade flower)

The teacher can easily make almost all the attributes for visual gymnastics with his own hands. So, a simple but original guide is Cheburashka with moving eyes (it can be any other character). It is cut out of colored cardboard. With the help of such a toy, you can not only strengthen your eyesight, but also repeat mathematical concepts (“in which direction is the character looking?”).

Due to the slits, Cheburashka's eyes move

Even pupils of the younger group can repeat the eye movements of such a Cheburashka - it replaces the teacher’s demonstration.

When working with children, Cheburashka’s actions replace the teacher’s demonstration

Another example of a homemade manual is geometric shapes cut out of colored cardboard (all of them are different colors). They are mounted on the wall at a sufficient distance from each other. The teacher chaotically names the figures or their color, and the children must look from one object to another without turning their heads.

An interesting guide is “The Orchard”. The poster shows various fruits: they form circles (small ones inside larger ones). The teacher names a specific fruit, and preschoolers must circle the corresponding circle with their eyes.

Fruits are arranged in circles of different sizes

Visualization should also be used when working with parents. Special posters showing how to correctly perform visual gymnastics should be periodically placed in the health corner in the locker room. Moms and dads can look at them there, and they will definitely attract children's attention.

Using the poster, parents will be able to familiarize themselves with the rules for performing visual gymnastics

Multimedia aids

Preschoolers always really like multimedia aids for visual gymnastics. They are videos where various objects appear on the screen: fish in an aquarium, butterflies in a meadow, stars in the sky, etc. The kids’ task is to follow them with their eyes. All this happens to the accompaniment of pleasant music, causing extremely positive emotions in the children.

Video: sunshine

Video: butterfly

Video: starry sky

Video: balloons

Video: geometric shapes

Video: in the depths of the sea

Video: watching the figures

Video: rainbow

What do the methods depend on?

Indeed, age characteristics are an important aspect. Therefore, any method is effective only for certain groups of children.

Band size

When drawing up an exercise schedule, for example, in preschool institutions, the number of people in the group is taken into account (the more children, the correspondingly less time will be devoted to each individual, so the exercises should be simple and understandable).

Age group

The fact is that you cannot use exercises for children in the senior kindergarten group when working with a nursery. Firstly, children under 3 years of age react worse to so-called rapid movements, and secondly, very young children cannot devote too much time to exercises. Therefore, the complex should be limited to short exercises that are not too long (time up to 5 minutes). The older the child, the more time you can devote to exercises.

Special group

And completely separate methods are compiled for children with congenital characteristics. This takes into account the complexity of the disease, the character and abilities of the children. Very often, exercises are carried out individually with each person.

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