To help the teacher “Rules for building effective communication”

Classic literature about raising children

“How to Love a Child” - Janusz Korczak

About the book: This is a real bible for parents and teachers and one of the few books about child psychology that has not lost its relevance more than 100 years since its publication. Polish teacher and doctor Janusz Korczak dedicated his life to working with orphans. Over the years of practice, he came to the conclusion that it is more important to love, respect and give a child freedom, rather than lecture and build a system of prohibitions. The scientist's observations and the literary talent of the lyricist add up to a soulful text full of invaluable experience.

What is the benefit: The book gives a charge of love for children and teaches a philosophy that supports the teacher in the most difficult professional moments. Korczak teaches to understand and accept children from infancy to the end of adolescence, without changing or making them “comfortable.” Learn to live with these “foreigners” who still don’t know the language and laws well.

“Everything, everything, everything about raising children” - Lyudmila Petranovskaya

About the book: The book contains three bestsellers by psychologist Lyudmila Petranovskaya: “If it’s difficult with a child,” “Secret support” and “Selfmom: life hacks for a working mother.” Petranovskaya examines the most common problems and crises in relationships with children and gives practical advice for each case. For example, it explains why children suddenly become hysterical and how to stop it.

What is the benefit: The author tells how to help a child get out of a conflict or difficult situation, grow harmoniously and not waste time on struggle and competition. The book teaches adults to become significant in children's lives and understand what really lies behind “bad manners.” Readers will learn why modern psychologists beg not to make children obedient.

“The Big Book of Communication with a Child” - Julia Gippenreiter

About the book: Expanded edition of Julia Gippenreiter’s bestsellers “Communicate with a child. How?”, “We continue to communicate with the child. So?" and chapters from the book “We have different characters. What should I do? Books have been republished since the 1990s, and teachers often refer to the works of the author, who is also a professor at Moscow State University and a doctor of psychological sciences. Answers to the eternal questions of several generations of parents are collected here in a collection. The book is built on the principle of small lessons.

What is the benefit: The author teaches the correct behavior with children “by contradiction”: an analysis of incorrect parenting strategies and ways to change them, ways to solve emotional difficulties and create warm, trusting relationships are provided.

How does a child's brain work?

“How to talk so children will listen, and how to listen so children will talk” - Elaine Mazlish and Adele Faber

About the book: A collection of tips on how to properly communicate with children from two psychologists and mothers of many children. Contains recommendations for building communication with children of different ages: a lot of practice, a minimum of theory.

What are the benefits: The author's methods help to conduct a dialogue with children so that they hear requests and respond to them without shouting or punishment. There are also tips on how to encourage your child to share his thoughts and feelings with adults.

"Thirty Million Words" - Dana Susskind

About the book: Professor, pediatric cochlear implantation surgeon from Chicago Dana Susskind talks about a study among children with congenital hearing impairments and their rehabilitation after implant installation. It turned out that children with the same initial data, who underwent surgery at the same age, recovered differently only because of the way their parents communicated with them.

What is the benefit: Data is provided on the influence of adult speech on children under four years of age, which helps to learn what words to use and how to construct sentences, why it is better to call a child a “helper” rather than asking for his help directly, and how many words per day are needed for development of the child's brain.

"The Emotional Intelligence of a Child" - John Gottman

What: Family psychologist John Gottman believes that in the last couple of decades, simply loving a child and adhering to certain parenting tactics is not enough, and one of the first skills that children should be taught is the ability to recognize their own emotions.

What is the benefit: Adults who read the book will be able to explain their emotions to children and thus influence their behavior and correct it. There are recommendations for building emotional education, which is aimed at eliminating nervousness and irritability in relationships between children and adults, reducing the level of anxiety and insecurity in children.

“How to stop snapping at your children” - Carla Naumburg

About what: The author, a sociologist and mother of two daughters, admits that she also had breakdowns and hysterics in her life. And most of the advice from the Internet was only about how to deal with these outbreaks. But jumping or screaming alone to relieve negative emotions is not the solution: sometimes being a parent 24/7 is too difficult. Carla offers her own ways of avoiding irritability and guilt in parenting.

What is the benefit: The book was written for parents, but kindergarten teachers have similar problems. How can you not break down and scream if 25 three-year-olds don’t hear the request to calm down? The author talks about what becomes the trigger for anxiety and the trigger for rage and screaming. This allows you to extinguish negative emotions in the “bud”, because the breakdown itself cannot be controlled and willpower alone will not get rid of it.

To help preschool teachers

Municipal budget preschool educational

institution “Kindergarten No. 158 “Ryabinushka”

general developmental type with priority implementation of activities for the social and personal development of children"

Cheboksary city

Prepared by:

physical education instructor

Zorina Larisa Yakovlevna

MBDOU "Kindergarten No. 158


Sports games and exercises play an important role in the physical education of children of senior preschool age. At any time of the year, they are held mainly in the open air, which, undoubtedly, is of great importance for hardening and strengthening the health of preschoolers. With their help, children learn a variety of motor skills, acquire moral and volitional qualities: determination, independence, courage, endurance. Games, play exercises and motor tasks are planned throughout the year depending on the season and weather conditions.

In the warm season, attention is paid to teaching preschoolers games with elements of different sports, such as volleyball, basketball, football, badminton, table tennis, and towns. Collective ball games create favorable conditions for nurturing positive moral and volitional traits in children. Having mastered individual elements, preschoolers learn ball games.

For example, the game “Whose team is bigger” is played on accuracy and accuracy of throwing the ball into the basket. Children are divided into teams and stand two meters away from the basketball post. The first participants in each team hold the balls. At the teacher’s signal, they throw the ball, trying to get into the basket, then catch it, pass it to the next one and stand at the end of the column. The team that throws the most balls into the basket within the set time wins.

Physical education is a necessary condition for the proper development of a child. It is necessary to introduce a child to sports from early childhood. Sport develops dexterity and speed of reaction, increases activity, and develops a sense of friendship.

Sports games occupy an important place in the comprehensive physical development of children. In the summer, ball games are especially popular. Exercises in throwing and rolling balls contribute to the development of coordination, dexterity, rhythm, and coordination of movements. They develop the ability to grab, hold, and throw an object, calculate the direction of a throw, coordinate efforts with distance, and since children have a poorly developed ability for precise movements, any actions with the ball have a positive impact on the development of this quality.

Exercises and games with a ball have a positive effect on the physical development of a child - exercises with balls of different weights and volumes develop not only large, but also small muscles of the hands, increase the mobility of the joints of the fingers and hands, which is very important for a six-year-old child who is about to go to school . When catching and throwing a ball, the child uses both hands, which contributes to the organic development of the child’s nervous system. When learning to play basketball, a variety of movements with the ball, which provides the necessary load on all muscle groups, especially for a child, the muscles that hold the spine in the correct position when forming posture are important.

Collective ball games create favorable conditions for the formation of moral and volitional qualities of a child’s character. An active game with a ball requires a certain tension in the child’s mental activity - analyzing the situation, making a decision, anticipating possible actions of the enemy.

Sports games for older preschoolers.

The game of basketball is a team game, joint actions in it are determined by a common goal, these skills will be useful to children in adulthood in their professional activities. What is "basketball"? – “basket” translated from English means basket, and “ball” means ball. Basketball has been played for over 100 years.

In Russia, the first match took place in St. Petersburg in 1928. Since then, basketball has been one of the leading places in its popularity in our country. Both children and adults play it. And the national team of our country participates in big competitions - the World Championships and the Olympic Games. Our city also has talented coaches and good players.

A basketball team consists of an equal number of players on each team (3-5 people). The game starts in the center circle. This is where the initial throw is played. The two tallest, most agile players of both teams stand opposite each other in a circle near the center line, the rest are located in a circle. The referee throws the ball up. The two players who stand in the center of the circle jump as high as possible, trying to throw the ball to their teammates. The attackers must try to throw the ball into the opponent's basket. Defenders run along with one of the players of the opposing team and, without breaking the rules, prevent him from taking possession of the ball.

Volleyball is played by two teams (each with 6 people) located on a court measuring 18x9 m, divided by a net stretched at a height of 2.5 m. The players are located in two lines on their sides of the court.

The goal of the game is to throw the ball to the opponent’s side with one or two hands so that it lands within the court. Players of the same team can hit the ball no more than 3 times in a row, while the same player must not touch the ball 2 times in a row.

The players of the team that won the service make a transition; they move one space clockwise on their side of the court. This is how the serving player changes in the team.

They play until one of the teams scores 15 points (if teams have 2 people, then they play up to 12 points). If the ball hits the net while serving, it is a loss of serve. In other cases, the ball hitting the net does not stop the game.

Children's volleyball (Pioneerball)

This game is played on a volleyball court in teams. Each team consists of 7-9 people who are located on their sides of the court in three rows. Those players standing in the second row each have a ball.

Rules of the game The game begins when the referee whistles, and the players throw balls over the net into the opponent’s court. Balls that have flown over the net are caught or picked up, and they try to quickly throw them to the opposite side.

If the ball hits the net or the player hitting it while serving, the serve is repeated, but no one gets points.

When a team wins a point, the players change places on their half of the court: the first row becomes third, the second row becomes first, and the third row becomes second.


Football. From English “foot” and “ball” - foot and ball. As the name suggests, in this game the ball is kicked. They play football on a special field that has boundaries, divided into two sectors, with two goals on both sides. Players move around the field by walking, running slowly, side-stepping, crossing, jumping, etc. The ball is kicked into the opponent's goal.

Sports badminton

Badminton is played with a racket and shuttlecock.

Rules of the game of badminton. The net or simply a cord is stretched at a height of 1.55 m. Each half of the site is divided into three sectors: the first - 1.98 m from the net - separated by a line parallel to the net; the rest of the site is divided by a longitudinal line into two equal parts. The game, like volleyball, consists of three games. Points, just like in volleyball, are awarded only to the serving side. If the server makes a mistake, he loses the right to serve. The serve, as already mentioned, is performed only with a blow from below, the rest of the blows are made from any position, with any part of the racket. If, when serving, the shuttlecock does not hit the desired sector, then the serve goes to the opponent.

To win the game, you must score at least 15 (11) points, provided that the difference in score with your opponent is at least 2 points. Sports games for younger preschoolers.

For younger preschoolers, any physical exercise should first of all be a game and only then physical education. It is good to hold sports games when there are a sufficient number of people interested, or at least the parents themselves should keep their little athlete company. If a child is about 3 years old, sports games should have as light a plot as possible. For example, several children depict small birds, and an adult depicts a large cat who wants to catch them. The children first play together, and then, hearing the hungry cat meow loudly, they run away in all directions. Such a plot can be invented with different characters. Children move and at the same time fix some images. For children of this age, it is best when the game has one episode. Also, for example, you can move around with a group of children, making sure to turn everything into a game. Invite the children to play with bunnies, stand in front of them and ask them to repeat the jumps that you do. Be sure to wait until each child can cope with the required movement if possible.

Children 4-5 years old are already more easily mastering new movements and complicated rules of the game. For example, you can add some “forbidden” elements to traditional simple games: run only to the line, you can’t run into a certain place, etc.

Children aged about 6 years old love it when their favorite fairy tale and cartoon characters are present in a sports game. At this age, children can already be offered many games, for example, for accuracy (throwing a ball into a basket) or for balance and imagination (making an interesting figure), etc. It must be remembered that group games with complex rules are worse for preschool children. It is best to choose a game when many children participate, but each child in the game is responsible only for himself and not for the team.

Play is the first form of activity available to preschoolers, which involves conscious reproduction and improvement of movements. In this regard, the motor development accomplished by a preschooler in play is a real prologue to the schoolchild’s conscious physical exercises. Games with elements of sports require children to have great independence, speed, dexterity of movement, and orientation in space. They are the highest form of ordinary outdoor games. In the shortest possible time, the child must see the current situation, evaluate it, choose the most correct actions and apply them. All this requires the players to develop certain skills and abilities. Games with sports elements are distinguished by a wide variety of interactions between sensory systems of various modalities, which is also the most important factor in improving the organization of movements. Compared to outdoor games, games with sports elements are a more complex form of activity. Consequently, their influence on the body of those involved is wider and deeper.

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