Card index of experiences and experiments for children of early and primary preschool age

Card index of games - experiments for children of the 1st junior group

Card index of games - experiments (younger preschool age)

Drawing artists

Goal: to create a desire to draw on a wet sheet, to find out that the colors are mixed and do not have a clear boundary, new colors are obtained.

Materials: a large sheet of paper for watercolors, moistened with water, oilcloth, paints and brushes.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

The sun is yellow in the sky Red flowers are blooming A fish is splashing in the blue sea Draw it all.

The process of painting with watercolors on a wet sheet can give you an unforgettable experience. To do this, lay an oilcloth on the table and wet a thick sheet of watercolor paper. Dip your brush into one of the paints and gently brush over the paper. Ask the children what will happen if we use other colors. Give the opportunity to play with colors. As if by chance, you can brush over the drawing with just water, without paint - the water will create delicate, blurry, light halftones on the sheet.

Something in the box

Purpose: to introduce the meaning of light and its sources (sun, flashlight, candle), to show that light does not pass through transparent objects. Material: Box with a lid with a slot in it; flashlight, lamp.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

Dad gave the bunny a small flashlight, the bunny liked to play with the flashlight. He turned on the flashlight and looked under the sofa, shining it inside the closet and in all corners. - Bunny, where is your ball? - Mom asked. - I'll go look! - said Bunny and went into the dark room. - I'm not afraid! - Bunny said cheerfully and lit a flashlight. The bunny shined a flashlight and found the ball.

The adult invites the children to find out what is in the box (unknown) and how to find out what is in it (look through the slot). Children look through the slot and note that it is darker in the box than in the room. An adult asks what needs to be done to make the box lighter (open the slot completely or remove the lid so that light enters the box and illuminates the objects inside it). The adult opens the slot, and after the children are convinced that it has become light in the box, he talks about other light sources - a flashlight and a lamp, which he lights in turn and places inside the box so that the children can see the light through the slot. Together with the children, he compares in which case it is better to see and draws a conclusion about the meaning of light.

Sunny bunny

Purpose: to introduce a natural source of light - the sun.

Material: small mirrors, sunlight

Progress of the game - experiment

Having chosen the moment when the sun is peeking through the window, use a mirror to catch a ray of light and try to draw the baby’s attention to how the sun “bunny” jumps along the wall, across the ceiling, from the wall to the sofa, etc. offer to catch the running “bunny”. If the child liked the game, switch roles: give him a mirror, show him how to catch the beam, and then stand against the wall. Try to “catch” a speck of light as emotionally as possible, while not forgetting to comment on your actions: “I’ll catch you, I’ll catch you!” What a nimble bunny - he runs fast! Oh, and now it’s on the ceiling, out of reach... Come on, hare, come down to us!” etc. A child's laughter will be your best reward.

Who lives in the water

Goal: to develop cognitive interest and imagination.

Material: blue and cyan pencils or watercolors, album sheet

Progress of the game - experiment

Literary word Water men splashed in the river all day. And then they climbed into the basin for another swim.

Sandmen live in the sandbox, and water men live in the water (in the sea, in the lake, in the river, as well as in the bathtub and basin). The water men are also very fun to play with. They may look like the picture. But you can come up with water men yourself and draw them in an album. Give your child blue and cyan crayons or watercolors and ask him to draw his own water people.

Drink delicious juice dolls

Goal: to identify the properties of water and paints, the ability of paints to dissolve in water and change its color. Materials: watercolor paints, brushes, transparent plastic glasses with water.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

One day the bunny decided to show his mother a trick. He placed transparent glasses on the table. Then he poured water into them. Water flowed gurgle-glug. - Mom, close your eyes! - said Bunny. Mom closed her eyes and began to wait for what would happen. (And you close your eyes). - Open up! - Bunny commanded. When mom opened her eyes, she saw that the water in the glasses was no longer plain, but multi-colored - yellow, red, blue, green and orange. (And you show with your finger which one is which). - How beautiful! - Mom was delighted.

Invite the children to prepare multi-colored juice for the dolls, try to attract the child’s attention with an element of magic: “And if we put a brush with yellow paint in a glass of water, I wonder what will happen. What kind of juice is this?” Set the table, arrange the glasses, seat the dolls, and treat them to drinks. Red water will turn into tomato juice, orange water into orange juice, yellow water into pineapple juice, and blue water into blackberry juice.

A fairy tale about how a rainbow bathed in water Purpose: to introduce the production of intermediate colors by mixing red and yellow, blue and green.

Material: seven transparent cups with warm water, seven colors of gouache paints.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

In the summer, after rain, a bright rainbow appeared in the sky, she looked down at the ground and saw a large smooth lake there. Rainbow looked into it as if into a mirror and thought: “How beautiful I am!” Then she decided to swim in the warm lake. Like a huge multi-colored ribbon, the rainbow fell into the lake. The water in the lake immediately turned different colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The kids came running with brushes and albums, dipped their brushes into the water and painted pictures. The rainbow had plenty of fun and flew away beyond the clouds. The water in the lake became clear, and the kids brought home beautiful and bright drawings.

Rainbows in water don't only happen in fairy tales. For example, you can color the water with paints, invite your child to dip his finger in the red paint, and then lower it into a glass of water. Do the same with the other colors one by one. You will get seven cups corresponding to the colors of the rainbow.

A piece of ice is melting

Purpose: to introduce what freezes in the cold and melts in warmth.

Materials: candle, spoon, ice, transparent cups with hot and cold water.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

One winter, a little squirrel brought home a piece of ice, an icicle, he left it in a hollow, on the floor in the hallway, and he went to have dinner and then sleep. When I woke up, I immediately remembered about the piece of ice and ran into the hallway. The piece of ice was gone - nowhere to be found, but there was a glistening puddle on the floor.

Put a piece of ice on a spoon and heat it over the candle flame: “Look, here is ice. Let's heat it up on the fire. Where is the ice? Melted! What did the ice turn into? Into some water!” Pour hot water into a transparent glass mug or glass (it can be tinted), put in a piece of ice and watch how quickly it melts. You can take several glasses and observe how ice melts differently in water of different temperatures.


Purpose: to identify the properties of water: it can heat up, cool down, freeze, melt.

Materials: baths, water of different temperatures, pieces of ice.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

Winter - Winter has come, and the water in rivers and lakes has frozen. The water turned into ice. Following Winter, the red Spring arrived, melted the ice, warmed the water a little. We can launch boats. The hot summer has arrived, and the water is warm and warm. You can swim and splash. And then cool Autumn came to visit us. And the water in rivers, lakes and puddles became cold. Winter will come again soon. So they come to visit us in turn: after Winter - Spring, after Spring - Summer, after Summer - Autumn, after Autumn - Winter.

Take two wide cups. Pour cold water into one, warm water into the other. Cold water is “winter”, warm water is “summer”. Let the baby touch the water with his hand. “Where is the cold water? Where is our “winter”? Here in this cup. Where's the warm water? Where is our “summer”? Here". Then take four cups or small basins. Place a small piece of ice in one cup (“winter”), pour lukewarm water into another (“spring”), warm but not hot water into the third (“summer”), and cold water into the fourth (“autumn”). Teach your child to determine what kind of water is in the cups and what time of year it corresponds.

Counting table

Purpose: to introduce the properties of water: pouring, moving.

Material: bath with water, toys.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

We cook porridge for the little ones, (Twist the handle in the water, as if “stirring the porridge.”) We make dough for crumpets, (Knead the water like dough.) We treat you to sweet tea, (We take water into our palms and pour it back into the bath.) Well and then we relax! In the bath - splash!

Invite the children to play with water, pay attention to the fact that the water moves in the direction of movement of their hand, and it also shimmers and flows.

How the water went for a walk

Purpose: to give an idea that water can be collected with various objects - a sponge, a pipette, a bulb, a napkin.

Material: foam sponge, plastic syringe without a needle, rubber bulb, water bath.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

They poured some water into the basin and forgot about it. After a while, the water girl got bored: “I’m sitting here and I don’t see anything, but there are probably so many interesting things around!” She wanted to get out of the basin, but it didn’t work out - the water doesn’t have arms or legs. She wanted to call someone, but the voice of the water in the basin was quiet - no one heard her. And then my mother came and thought: “Why is there water standing here?” took it and poured it into the sink. Water flowed through the pipes and ended up in a large river, in which there was a lot of other water. And our water flowed along with the big river through the city, past beautiful houses and green gardens. “How beautiful, how wonderful! - thought the water girl. “If I were sitting in my basin and wouldn’t see this beauty!” Take a foam or other absorbent sponge, a rubber bulb and a plastic syringe (without a needle). Pour water into a small basin, prepare several empty containers (cups, bowls, etc.). Ask your child to dip the sponge in water and show how to squeeze it into the cup. Then take the water with a rubber bulb and pour it into another container. Do the same with the syringe.

Foam castle

Purpose: to introduce the fact that when air gets into a drop of soapy water, a bubble forms, then foam.

Materials: small container with soapy water, straws, rubber toy.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

Before our eyes, a castle will grow from the foam, We will blow with you into the tube, The prince will play on the pipe.

Pour some dishwashing detergent into a small container, add water and stir. Take a wide cocktail straw, place it in a bowl and start blowing. Simultaneously with the loud gurgling, a cloud of iridescent bubbles will grow in front of the child’s eyes. Give your child a straw and ask him to blow first with you, then on his own. Place a plastic or rubber toy inside the foam - this is “the prince who lives in a foam castle.”

Why don't the boats sail?

Goal: detect air, create wind.

Material: paper and foam boats, bath with water. Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

The boats are standing in the blue sea and just can’t sail. The captains began to ask Sunshine: “Sunshine! Help our ships sail! The sun answers them: “I can heat the water in the sea!” The Sun heated the water, the water became warm, but the boats still did not sail. Night has come. Stars appeared in the sky. The captains began to ask them: “Stars! Help our boats sail!” The stars answer them: “We can show you the way where you need to go!” The captains were offended: “We ourselves know where to sail, but we can’t move!” Suddenly the wind blew. The captains began to ask him: “Breeze! Help our ships set off!" “It's very simple!” - said the Wind and began to blow on the boats. And the ships sailed.

Invite the children to put the boats in a bath of water, ask if the boats float, and why? What needs to be done to make the boats sail? Listen to the children’s suggestions and bring them to the conclusion that wind is needed. Where to “get” the wind? Children blow on boats and create wind.


Goal: to consolidate knowledge about the properties of water - it flows, you can strain it through a net.

Materials: a bowl of water, a net, a strainer, a toy colander, small toys.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

- Fisherman, what kind of fish did you catch for us for lunch? He answers with a smile: “It’s not a secret at all!” I managed to catch two holey shoes so far!

Pour water into a basin and give your baby a net for catching aquarium fish, a small strainer with a handle, or a toy colander. Throw a few small toys into the water. They can float on the surface or lie on the bottom. Invite your child to catch these toys with a net. You can ask him to catch some specific toys: “Catch a blue ball, catch a red fish,” etc.

Soap bubbles

Goal: to create a desire to blow soap bubbles, to introduce the fact that when air gets into soapy water, a bubble forms.

Material: soapy water, cocktail tubes, bottles with the bottom cut off, gel pen body.

Progress of the game - experiment

Literary word Vodichka does not like slobs and dirty people, She boils and swears: “Glug-glug-glug-glug!” But if we wash our hands and faces, Vodichka is happy and no longer angry.

Lather your hands until you get a lush, thick foam. Then separate your palms so that a thin transparent soap film forms between them. Blow on it and you will get a soap bubble. Let the child blow on the soap film in your palms, help him make his own soap bubble. To encourage your child to blow soap bubbles on his own, offer him, in addition to a frame from a purchased bubble, a variety of tubes - a cocktail tube, a plastic bottle with the bottom cut off, or roll and glue a thick tube from thick paper. To get a solid tube (kids often bite or bend cocktail tubes), you can disassemble the gel pen and take the body from it - a transparent plastic tube. You can make your own bubble water using dishwashing liquid.


Purpose: to give an idea that water can change the direction of movement.

Material: an empty basin, a ladle with water, funnels, grooves made from half a plastic bottle, from cardboard bent in the shape of a fishing line.

Progress of the game - experiment

Literary word Water is pouring from a great height, Splashes fly onto the grass and flowers. The kids around are buzzing animatedly, the waterfall is louder than the kids.

Encourage the children to play with the funnels and grooves. Let them try pouring water into the basin through funnels, and now through a plastic channel and a cardboard channel curved like a ladder. Combine these items: pour water onto the grooves through funnels. Draw the children's attention to the fact that the water is moving. Ask them what would happen if we held the grooves differently (the direction of the water would change).

The Tale of the Pebble

Purpose: to use an example to show that objects can be light and heavy.

Material: a bath of water, small heavy and light objects, pebbles.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word There was a small pebble lying on the shore of the lake. He looked at the beautiful lilies and water lilies that floated on the water and thought: “How happy they are, floating like little boats. I want to swim too!” a boy came to the shore of the lake, took a pebble and threw it into the water. Pebble was happy: “Finally my dream has come true! I'll swim!" But it turned out that he could not swim because he was too heavy. And the pebble sank to the bottom of the lake. At first he was very upset. And then I saw how many funny fish, other pebbles and beautiful plants there were around. The pebble stopped being sad and became friends with the fish. What can you do! Heavy pebbles cannot float. Take several small, light objects that can float (for example, a feather, a ball, a paper boat, a thin sliver) and several heavy objects that will lie on the bottom (for example, a pebble, a key, a coin). Fill the bathtub or basin with water. Give the child one of the objects and ask him to put it in the water. At the same time, tell him: “Look, the boat is floating! And the key sank - it’s heavy! The petal floats - it’s light!”

Who woke up the baby whale

Goal : to introduce the fact that there is air inside a person and to discover it.

Materials : bath of water, straws, soapy water in cups.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

The wind blows and blows, “Well, what does it look like! It raises waves in the sea. My baby whale can't sleep! The blue sea is seething, the wind is howling very loudly - the daddy whale is dissatisfied: He doesn’t give us all peace! The kitten agrees: “It needs to be quiet! Wind, wind, don’t whistle, don’t wake up our baby!”

Take a cocktail straw, place it in the water and ask your child to blow into the straw until the water begins to bubble. And if you prepare a soap solution in a ladle and blow into a tube, foam will begin to form and a lush soap “beard” will grow from the ladle.

Branch in a vase

Purpose : to show the importance of water in plant life.

Material: tree branch, vase with water, “living water” sticker.

Progress of the game - experiment

Artistic word

A powerful truck drove by and the twig broke. The twig fell into the snow and would have lain there, But a caring and gentle hand lifted it and carried it into the warm water to drink from the snow. We put a branch in a vase, all the buds will open, and green leaves will appear from them.

Cut or pick up a broken twig from rapidly budding trees. Take a vase and put a “living water” sticker on it. Together with your children, look at the twigs and buds on them. Then place the branch in the water and explain to the children that one of the important properties of water is to give life to all living things. Place the branch in a visible place. Ask children what will happen, develop the ability to make guesses. Watch every day, time will pass, the buds will burst and green leaves will appear.

Early experimentation in children

 According to the Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool Education, the main principles of preschool education are

1) full-fledged experience by the child of all stages of childhood (infancy, early and preschool age), enrichment (amplification) of child development;

2) building educational activities based on the individual characteristics of each child, in which the child himself becomes active in choosing the content of his education, becomes a subject of education (hereinafter referred to as individualization of preschool education);

3) assistance and cooperation of children and adults, recognition of the child as a full participant (subject) of educational relations;

4) supporting children’s initiative in various activities;

5) the formation of cognitive interests and cognitive actions of the child in various types of activities;

6) age adequacy of preschool education (compliance of conditions, requirements, methods with age and developmental characteristics);

To implement the principles of preschool education, experimentation is best suited, since children are characterized by visual-effective and visual-figurative thinking, and experimentation, like no other method, corresponds to these age-related characteristics. Children can experiment in almost all types of activities under the supervision of an adult (educator, parent). In kindergarten, experimentation allows children to learn to think logically, build cause-and-effect relationships, draw conclusions themselves, and at the same time, they remember everything that children see better than when talking with an adult, because this is accompanied by the activities of the children themselves. In addition, experiments remind children of magic tricks: they are not ordinary, sometimes they capture all the attention of children, and most importantly, children do them themselves.

Starting from 6 months, the child begins to actively move around the house. Before a year, the child begins to try to talk, it is at this time that mothers hear the long-awaited “mom” and “dad” from the child’s lips. The baby learns to communicate his desires. And it is from this time that the child begins to explore the world around him with the help of words. It is very important that parents at this time begin to talk with the child as much as possible, accumulating the child’s vocabulary and knowledge about the world around him.

By the age of two, a child, as a rule, having accumulated a vocabulary of 200–300 words and becoming familiar with the names of objects, begins to explore the physical properties of these objects, conducting first experiments with objects. Experiments are observations that are carried out in specially organized conditions for adults. At the same time, adults need to satisfy the child’s interest in a form accessible to the child.

Having received clear answers to his questions from adults, the child then displays the received information in a game and thereby consolidates it in his memory. If a child’s observations of the surrounding reality are accompanied by skillful, correct explanations from elders, his ideas develop, he begins to better navigate his surroundings, compare, contrast, establish connections between individual phenomena, their causes, etc.

Adults, giving correct and understandable explanations for the child’s encountered phenomena, develop in him an inquisitive mind, an even greater desire to learn and understand. Accustomed to looking for explanations for everything, he then himself tries to find the reason for this or that fact. This is very valuable for the development of a child’s thinking.

At two or three years old, you can and should start experimenting with children with surrounding objects: sand, snow, water, wind, sun. When experimenting with children, you need to start with objects that the child can hold in his hands and touch.

Therefore, the main tasks of experimentation

  1. Create conditions for children to gain real ideas about the various aspects of the object being studied and its relationships with other objects and with the environment.
  2. Contribute to the enrichment of the child’s memory, his thought processes are activated.
  3. Promote children's speech development by enriching children's active vocabulary or children's desire to answer the teacher's questions.
  4. To promote the accumulation of children's mental skills fund.
  5. To promote in children the development of independence, goal-setting, and the ability to transform any objects and phenomena to achieve a certain result.
  6. To promote the development of the child’s emotional sphere, creative abilities, the formation of work skills, and improve health by increasing the overall level of physical activity.

There are several stages in organizing and conducting experiments:

  1. Statement of the problem (task).
  2. Finding ways to solve the problem.
  3. Clarification of life safety rules during experimentation.
  4. Conducting experiments observing safety precautions.
  5. Recording observations using drawings, photographs, diagrams.
  6. Discussion of results and formulation of conclusions.

The equipment for experimenting at home is all items that are safe for children.

In kindergarten, from the beginning of the first junior group, the center of experimentation is rather poor. The experimentation center in the first junior group should have everything necessary for experimenting with sand, water and air: containers of different sizes, watering cans, pebbles, sand, water, boats, boats, shovels, scoops, buckets, objects made of different materials (wooden spools , sticks, rubber balls, toys, plastic buttons, metal objects, etc.), plastic cups of carved shape, size, degree of transparency, floating toys, balloons, pinwheels, plumes, ribbons, flags.

In the second junior group, the equipment of the experimentation center is significantly expanded with materials on experimenting with sunlight, with objects, on the study of human senses and plant life: plasticine, stacks, peas, millet, illustrative material, educational games on ecology, flashlight, feathers, wooden spoons, mirrors, planks, bars, pieces of various fabrics, mechanical floating toys, natural materials (acorns, cones, plant seeds, shells, twigs, wood cuts, fruit seeds, cereals, etc.), corks, sound boxes ( filled with buttons, peas, millet, cotton wool, paper, etc.) kite, etc.

Rice. 1. Equipment for experimentation

When conducting experimentation, it should be remembered that the chosen object of experimentation must be chosen by the child himself, the experiment must be short-term due to the age characteristics of the children.

The problematic task should be understandable and contain novelty for the child. It should motivate the child to find the answer, but it should not be difficult for the child.

When conducting experiments, an adult only organizes active activity in the form of dialogue using a heuristic method. The necessary explanations are given using only words that the child understands.

Rice. 2. Experimenting with water in the first junior group

During experimentation, an adult not only introduces children to the properties of various objects and materials, but also reinforces basic ideas about the shape, size, color of objects, developing the child’s fine motor skills, etc. Kids love such games very much and it is very important not to limit them in time when conducting the experiment, but also try not to overtire him.

Recording experiments for children of this age is still difficult, but only by recording what they see does the experiment become complete. However, this work can only be purely voluntary for the child. And an adult has no right to force a child to experiment and record the result obtained. The initiative should come only from the child himself.

The pictorial method of recording (drawing) observations is the most common. However, with a low level of visual skills, children cannot always correlate the image with the real events that they observed.

The second method - photographing is the most valuable, because it has a number of advantages - it accurately conveys the features of the object and the photographs can later be used again when conducting a conversation with children, in addition, children looking at the photographs remember what they saw and remember the experience again, photographs can be used in the game "first and then."

Other methods of recording experiences are still very difficult for children of primary preschool age (written (recording a child’s story, etc.), plans, diagrams, etc.).

As a result of experimentation, children develop the following ideas:

  1. About materials (sand, clay, paper, fabric, wood).
  2. About natural phenomena (wind, snowfall, sun, water; games with the wind, with snow, etc.).
  3. About the world of plants (methods of growing from seeds, bulbs, leaves).
  4. About methods of studying an object.
  5. About the objective world.

In the process of research and experimentation, children's vocabulary develops through words denoting sensory features, properties, phenomena or objects of nature (color, shape, size); crumples, breaks; high - low - far; soft - hard - warm, etc.). Children develop the ability to build cause-and-effect relationships. Children develop comprehensively. Experimentation in early preschool age allows children to easily approach the “Why Chek” age.


  1. Zenina, T. N. Familiarization of young children with nature / T. N. Zemina. - M.: Pedagogical Society of Russia, 2006.
  2. Makhaneva, M. D. Play activities with children from 1 to 3 years old / M. D. Makhaneva, S. V. Reshchikova. - M.: Creative, 2005.
  3. Organization of experimental activities of preschool children: Methodological recommendations / Ed. L. N. Prokhorova. - M.: ARKTI, 2008.
  4. A child in the world of search: A program for organizing the search activities of preschool children / Ed. O. V. Dybina. - M.: Sphere shopping center, 2005.
  5. Silberg, Jackie. Educational games for two-year-old children. / Jackie Silberg. - Minsk: Potpourri, 2005.

MAGAZINE Preschooler.RF

Pedagogical experience: “Introducing young children to the world around them through children’s experimentation”

(junior group)

Teacher at MBDOU "Yagodka" . Noyabrsk Eroshko E.M.

I have been working as a kindergarten teacher for 32 years. During my work, I had the opportunity to work with children of different ages. The most crucial period is the child’s adaptation to the nursery group; this is a difficult stage and at the same time interesting. When a crying baby does not want to let go of his mother, you need to gather all your skills, abilities, techniques, and be patient in order to make the baby forget about his mother, get distracted and not cry.

Working with older children has its own peculiarities. Here you need to be an older friend. A friend who is knowledgeable, able, able to help and teach. I try to be a friend to children, to understand everyone’s individuality, not only to give them new knowledge about life. But also to cultivate a positive attitude towards the world around you, towards yourself.

In my work, simply human things come to the fore: to help, to caress, to sympathize, to talk heart to heart.

The main task for me is to move forward, mastering innovative technologies, unconventional methods, but also not forgetting the good old days. I need to fill myself with knowledge to satisfy the curiosity of a modern child. I try to develop in myself such qualities of a modern educator as patience and kindness. After all, I have to work not only with children, but also with parents. Parents of children are like-minded people, helpers, and friends for me. We do one thing together - raise children...

In my work I am based on the following scientific and methodological principles: “People who have learned to observe and experiment acquire the ability to pose questions themselves and receive factual answers to them, finding themselves at a higher mental and moral level in comparison with those who have not undergone such schooling.” " (K.E. Timiryazev).

A preschool child is a researcher, showing a keen interest in various types of research activities, in particular in elementary experimentation. Experimentation permeates all areas of children's activity: eating, playing, studying, walking, sleeping... understanding the importance of experimentation in the development of cognitive activity of preschool children, trying to create conditions for their experimental activities, I began work by building a subject-development environment: arrangement of an experimentation corner, selection of equipment and materials, production of experimental games, developed a long-term plan for experimental activities, compiled a card index of experimental games for experimental activities.

The main issues planned for study are the selection of literature on conducting and organizing research activities in early preschool age in a playful way and using game characters, organization and observation of children’s activities during experimentation classes; according to the thematic plan, a series of classes and a card index were developed experiments.

Not a single educational or educational task can be successfully solved without close contact with the family and complete mutual understanding between parents and teacher. In individual conversations, consultations. At parent-teacher meetings, I convince parents of the need for daily attention to their children’s joys and sorrows.

Parents are constantly consulted on the role of experimentation in the lives of children, and advice has been developed for parents “What experiments can be carried out at home . A photo exhibition of children's experimental activities was created. The topic turned out to be quite interesting for the parents, and they gladly responded to all the suggestions. At the end of the school year, a final parent meeting was held, at which parents were presented with the results of work with children. Parents, in turn, spoke about their impressions. Thus, the efforts of the preschool institution and the family are combined to accomplish the assigned tasks.

Intensive development of children's experimentation in all its types and forms is a necessary condition for the successful development of a preschooler's personality, the development of cognitive interest, and the nurturing of the need for a holistic perception of the world around him.

At the first stage, I drew up a thematic plan for experimental activities, taking into account the age characteristics of children and gradually increasing the complexity of cognitive tasks (Appendix 1).

Work was also carried out to create a subject-development environment in the group: equipment for conducting experiments and experiments (Appendix 2).

According to the thematic plan, a series of lessons (Appendix 3) and a card index of experiments (Appendix 4) were developed.

Preschool teachers were shown the presentation “Experimental games in the younger group” (Appendix 6)

Annex 1.



Topic: “Learning about the world around us through play and experiments”

(junior group)

Goal: development of the cognitive sphere of children through inclusion in the process of experimentation.


  • form ideas about the properties and qualities of the objective world;
  • deepen understanding of living and inanimate nature;
  • promote children's participation in research and generalization of experimental results;
  • develop independent activity skills.

Appendix 2

Creating a developmental environment with the aim of developing children's experimentation in a group:

1. Experimentation corner for independent free activity and individual lessons, the content of which is:

  1. A variety of vessels from various materials of different volumes and shapes;
  2. Natural material collected together with children (pebbles, clay, sand, shells, feathers, cones, etc.);
  3. Waste material (fabrics, wooden, plastic and iron objects, etc.);
  4. Different types of paper, plasticine;
  5. Food and non-food dyes;
  6. Assistant devices (magnifying glasses, scales, magnets, etc.);
  7. Medical materials (pipettes, flasks, measuring spoons and cups, etc.);
  8. Other materials (various cereals, flour, salt, sugar, sieve).
  9. Children's aprons;
  10. Towels, rags, brush and dustpan;
  11. Experimental schemes.
  12. Long-term lesson plan for the year in the following sections:
  13. Properties of water;
  14. Air and its properties;
  15. Solid: stone; sand
  16. Paper properties

Appendix 3

Lesson notes on familiarization with the environment

Lesson 1

Program content: Introduce children to the properties of sand: sand is many grains of sand; sand can be dry or wet; wet sand takes any desired shape.

To cultivate cultural and hygienic skills, curiosity and the desire to play together.

Evoke positive emotions.

Equipment: Robes for the teacher and children, several containers with dry sand, watering cans with water, sand molds, a sheet of paper.

Vocabulary work: sand, wet, dry, dirty

Preliminary work: playing with sand while walking; examination of plot paintings on the topic: “Children are walking” ; d/games: “More or less” , “Collect in a basket” ; observations in nature

Methodological techniques: questions to children, teacher's story, experiment with sand, practical activities of children.

Progress of the lesson

Guys, Professor Znaykin again invites us to visit his laboratory. Let's go to? Let's all put on our dressing gowns, and the professor will show us a lot of new and interesting things. The children get dressed and go through.

1. Guys, what’s in my glass? (the teacher pours sand of different sizes into a slide). Sand. Right. I'll take a white piece of paper and sprinkle some grains of sand on it. Look how small they are. Each of them is clearly visible on a sheet of paper. How many grains of sand do you need to make a big pile of sand? A lot of. (children's answers). How many grains of sand are there in the sandbox? A lot of. Sand consists of many grains of sand.

Conclusion: Sand is made up of many grains of sand.

2. Guys, let's touch the sand. What kind of sand? Dry. Put your hands in the sand and then pull your hands out. Are our hands clean or dirty? Children's answers. Clean.

Now let's do an experiment with sand. Children water the sand. What happened to the sand? The sand became wet. Guys, put your hands in the sand. Get your hands out. What are your hands like? Hands are wet and dirty. Why are your hands wet? Children's answers: Because we poured water on the sand.

Sand can be dry, but if you pour water on the sand it becomes wet. Our journey through Professor Znaykin’s laboratory continues. There are two basins in front of you, one with dry sand, the other with wet sand. Now we will make pies using molds.

Let's try to make pies out of dry sand. It turns out? No. And why? The sand is dry and you can’t sculpt with it. (Children's answers). Now let’s try to sculpt from wet sand. It turns out? Yes. Why? The sand is wet. (Children's answers).

Conclusion: You can sculpt from wet sand, but not from dry sand.

Guys, it's time for us to return to the group. Let's say goodbye to Professor Znaykin.

Lesson 2

Program content: To introduce children to stones and their properties: to give an idea that stones are heavy and light; hard; can be cold or warm.

Continue teaching children to group objects by color.

Cultivate a desire to help loved ones.

Evoke positive emotions.

Equipment: Overalls; large and small stones; multi-colored small pebbles from the aquarium and matching buckets; wonderful bag; foam rubber

Vocabulary work: light, heavy, warm, cold, soft, hard

Preliminary work: looking at stones while walking; d/games: “Put it in a basket” , “Wonderful bag” ; "What colour?"

Methodological techniques: questions to children, teacher’s story, experiment with stones, practical activities of children

Progress of the lesson

Guys, Professor Znaykin came to visit us. Znaykin invites us to conduct experiments again, put on your robes. Children put on their dressing gowns and go to the table. There are stones of different sizes (large and small) on the table.

Guys, look, what is this? Stones. Take them in your hands and examine the stones. Which stones are heavy or light? Children's answers. Now let's determine whether stones are heavy or light. Children's answers. Guys, stones can be heavy and light.

Now let's play with the stones. I have two bags, we will put stones in them. We will put one bag on the windowsill, and the other bag will put it on the radiator.

Finger gymnastics is carried out.

Guys, now let's touch the stones from the bags. What kind of stones are in this bag, cold or warm? Children's answers. Children touch stones and answer the teacher’s questions. Guys, now let's try to compress the stones, the stones are compressed. No. And I have cotton wool. Let's try squeezing the cotton wool. Does cotton wool shrink? Yes. Cotton wool shrinks because it is soft, but stones are hard and cannot shrink. Guys, look, our stones are of different colors. What color are the stones? Yellow, green, red and blue. Children's answers. Let's sort the stones by color. Children arrange stones by color. Well done guys, you did a good job. What did you learn today? Let's say goodbye to the professor.

Lesson 3

Program content: Introduce children to the properties of water: water can be clear, cloudy; with the properties of paper: paper can be thick, thin, torn, wrinkled.

Give an idea that air is invisible.

Develop cognitive interests, imagination, attention, thinking.

Enrich your vocabulary.

Evoke positive emotions.

Equipment: telephone, bathrobes, glasses, cap, hippos, glass of water, glass of flour, spoons, glass bowl, plastic bags, thick and thin paper.

Vocabulary work: transparent, cloudy, light, thick

Preliminary work: examination of different types of paper; d/game: “Hide the toy” ; breathing exercise “Butterflies”

Methodological techniques: questions to children, teacher’s story, demonstration, practical activities of children

Progress of the lesson

The phone rang, Professor Znaykin is calling. He again invites us to visit him in his laboratory. Let's put our robes back on. Children wear dressing gowns. Guys, look what's on my table. There is a glass of water on the table. Is the water in the glass clear? Children's answers. Let's play a game with you: add a spoonful of flour to a glass of water and stir. What is the water like? Children's answers. Cloudy, dirty, not transparent. And why? We added flour to the water. Guys, look, I have small balls, let's put one in clear water and the other in muddy water. In what kind of water can you see the ball? Children's answers. Now guys, we know that water can be clear and cloudy.

Guys, we also don’t see the air in our room. Air is everywhere. To see it, you need to catch it. Now we will try to catch the air. The teacher distributes bags to everyone. The teacher shows the children how to catch air. Children repeat. Touch the package. What's in it? Air. The bag is full of air and looks like a pillow. Anya, what's in the bag? Now I will release the air from the bag. Why did the package become thin? Children's answers.

Well done guys, now we know that we don’t see air, but it is everywhere.

Guys, now we will play with paper. Everyone will take the paper in their hands and place it on their palm. Breathing game "Blow" . We've played, and now let's do an experiment with paper.

Take a piece of paper in your hands. Touch the paper with your hands, what kind of paper? Is the paper thin or thick? Children's answers.

Now let's try to crumple the paper, show us what happened. The paper was crumpled. Try tearing the paper. It broke, why? The paper is thin. That's right, the paper is thin, it tears.

Do the same with thick paper.

Conclusion: Thin paper tears, but thick paper does not. Thin paper wrinkles, but thick paper does not.

Guys, you liked the experiments with Professor Znaykin. Children repeat what they did today. They say goodbye and take off their dressing gowns.

Appendix 4

Card index of experiments

Experiments with water

Topic: “What will happen?”

Purpose: To give an idea that some substances dissolve in water.

Equipment: Two glasses of water, some sand and sugar.

Procedure: The teacher invites the children to see what happens if they put a spoonful of sand in a glass of water and stir it. Then he demonstrates it. Sand mixed in a glass of water made the water opaque and cloudy. But after a while it settled to the bottom of the glass, and the water became clear again. Next, the teacher does the same with sugar, drawing the children’s attention to the fact that the sugar did not cloud the water and did not settle to the bottom, but disappeared. What happened? Sugar dissolved in water, but sand did not.

Conclusion: Some substances dissolve in water, and some do not.

Experiments with sand

Topic: "Traces"

Purpose: To give an idea that marks and prints remain on wet sand.

Equipment: Container with sand, jug with water.

Procedure: The teacher invites the children to leave handprints on dry sand. Are the prints clearly visible? (No). The teacher wets the sand, mixes it, and levels it. He suggests leaving handprints on the wet sand. Is it working now? (Yes). Look, every finger is visible. Now we will make the footprints. What do you see? Why were there handprints and footprints? (Because the sand was wet).

Conclusion: Traces and imprints remain on wet sand, but not on dry sand.

Experiments with air

Topic: “Let’s drown the toys”

Purpose: To give an idea that air is lighter than water.

Equipment: Container with water. Rubber toys.

Progress: The teacher shows the children a rubber toy. Then he presses it several times, directing the stream of air coming out of the hole of the toy towards the child so that he feels it. Why is this happening? (Because there is air in the toy). The teacher invites the children to lower a rubber toy to the bottom of a basin of water. What's happening? (The toy floats up.) This happens because there is air in the toy, and air is lighter than water.

Conclusion: Toys filled with air do not sink because air is lighter than water.

Experiments with stones

Topic: “Light - Heavy”

Purpose: To give an idea that stones can be heavy and light.

Equipment: Three stones of sharply contrasting size.

Progress: The teacher invites the children to look at the stones. What are they? (Big and small). Then the teacher asks the child to take the smallest stone. The baby picks it up easily. The teacher draws the children's attention to the fact that the stone is light. Next, the teacher suggests taking a larger stone. The child picks up a stone, the teacher draws attention to the fact that the stone is heavy and not easy to lift. Then the child is asked to pick up the largest stone. The child cannot complete the task. Why? (Because the stone is very heavy).

Conclusion: Stones can be heavy or light. It depends on their size.

Experiments with paper

Topic: “Paper leaves”

Purpose: To give an idea that the paper is light.

Equipment: Sheet of paper, container with water.

Procedure: The teacher shows the children a piece of paper and asks them to determine whether it is heavy or light. Then he suggests checking it out. The teacher places a piece of paper on the child’s palm and invites him to blow on it. What happened? (The leaf flew off the palm.) Why? (Because it's lightweight). Next, the teacher lowers a sheet of paper into a container of water. What happened? (The leaf floats). Why didn't the paper sink? (Because it's light).

Conclusion: The paper is lightweight, deflatable and does not float in water.

Appendix 5

Parent meeting script

Topic: Experimental and experimental activities of young children

Form of the meeting: workshop-seminar

Purpose: To form an idea among parents about the experimental activities of young children and its significance.

Equipment: Five transparent glasses, gouache in 4 colors, a brush, a container of sand, a container of water, pebbles, a feather, a notebook sheet and a sheet of thick cardboard.

Meeting plan

  1. Theoretical material. Message for parents "Little Explorers" .
  2. Practical part. Carrying out basic experiments together with parents.

Progress of the meeting

1 part.

"Little Explorers"

Many children’s actions can cause bewilderment to adults: “He hid grandma’s umbrella!” I fed the cat with a spoon! I poured water into my grandfather’s galoshes and put my hat on the dog!”

But if you analyze such situations, you will notice that these are not just pranks, but actions of active experimentation in understanding the properties of the surrounding world. There was an indicative and exploratory orientation in the baby’s behavior early on. But now he is interested not only in the purely external characteristics of things, the baby is trying to establish some hidden features of the observed object.

Why is grandma's umbrella hidden? Firstly, this is a thing that, at the press of a button, turns into a dome, which, you see, is no less interesting than playing with a “singing” top. In addition, I would like to see how my grandmother will look for him and say: “Oh, I’m old! Again I put my umbrella somewhere and I can’t find it! Alyoshenka, look with your sharp eyes, where is my umbrella? This is real social experimentation.

Why did the baby decide to feed the cat with a spoon? Because in yesterday’s game he fed the toy Kotofeich with a spoon, watered him from a cup, and now it seems unfair to him that the family’s favorite cat Vaska is deprived of such attention. This action is a game by analogy, transferred to a new situation, which indicates the high intelligence of the baby.

Why did you pour water into grandfather’s galoshes? Grandfather boasted about his galoshes: they are old, but they don’t get wet! The kid tested the item for its functional suitability, and these were the results. The teacher encourages children to formulate their own conclusions. Part 2.

Elementary experiments:

Multi-colored water"; "Sand" ; “Let's let the air out of the glass” ; “Let’s wash the pebbles” ; “Thin - thick” , “Coloring water”

Appendix 6

Consultation for parents “Small steps into a wonderful world!”

Early age is a period of active experimentation of a child with the objective world. Everything that surrounds the baby - things that belong to adults, toys, animals, plants, water, sand and much more - arouses his interest. He loves to explore new objects, experiment with various substances and materials: water, sand, snow, clay, paints. Adults often doubt that young children can seriously learn “important” things. However, it is not. In the process of such research, the baby’s curiosity develops, his ideas about the world around him expand, the child gains rich sensory experience, and receives a powerful impetus for the development of intelligence.

It is important to remember that the formation of a child’s intellectual sphere is carried out not only with the targeted guidance of adults, but also in free, independent practical activity. In the process of free experimentation, the child receives new, sometimes unexpected information, establishes practical connections between his own actions and the phenomena of the surrounding world, and makes some kind of discoveries. Experimentation stimulates the child to search for new actions and contributes to the development of flexibility of thinking. Independent experimentation gives the child the opportunity to try out different methods of action, while removing the fear of making mistakes and the constraint of thinking with ready-made action patterns. The role of parents in this process is not to immediately show how to do it correctly, but to stimulate the child’s interest in subjects, encourage independent research, and support his curiosity.

A child’s pronounced curiosity is the most important indicator of his successful mental development. It manifests itself in the fact that the baby:

  1. actively strives for new experiences, loves to observe others;
  2. quickly discovers new things and strives to immediately explore them;
  3. participates with interest in games with water, sand, and experimenting with various substances suggested by adults;
  4. spends a long time experimenting with enthusiasm on his own, imitating an adult and inventing new actions;
  5. rejoices at his discoveries and strives to share them with adults.

It is imperative to keep in mind that a child’s full mastery of objective activities occurs only in the process of communicating with adults.

There is an experimental laboratory in which all the necessary equipment for conducting experiments is collected.

  • Appendix 7. Presentation “Experimentation in the younger group”

Experiments with water

Game "Bulbochki" . Children put rubber toys into the water and watch how air bubbles come out of the water.

“Air bubbles” - using a straw you can make bubbles in a glass

“Coloring water” - it’s fun to make colorful water with your children using a brush and gouache.

“From empty to empty” - Children love to pour water from one vessel to another. Shampoo bottles and jars of different shapes and sizes are used for this game.

“Balls in the Water” – Train fine motor skills

Experiments with sand

To give an idea that sand is many grains of sand.

Sand can be dry or wet. Dry sand may crumble, wet sand

takes any desired shape.

“Games with turntables” “Let’s make a breeze”

"Blow up the balloons"

"My funny ringing ball"

“Blow up the balloons” “My funny ringing ball”

Give an idea that the ball jumps high because there is a lot of air in it.

"Boat, sail"

Give an idea that objects can move with the help of air

  • Perfection of self-education:
  • Getting acquainted with modern techniques on the topic of children's experimentation

— I take part in pedagogical skills competitions and innovative project competitions.

  • Cooperation with kindergarten teachers and parents.

I annually conduct consultations on the topic of children's experimentation, business experimental games, seminars on problem situations, open viewings of experiments and classes, individual conversations on the topic of environmental education and the role of the family in solving experimental problems. I also annually organize various competitions: competitions for crafts made from natural materials, a competition for crafts made from “waste materials”

Visual information for parents is constantly updated.

When working with children, I always try to promote the development of cognitive activity, curiosity, and the desire for independent knowledge and reflection. Every little child is a little explorer, discovering the world around him with joy and surprise.

My task is to not let this desire fade away.

Literature studied:

  • “Cognitive and research activity as a direction for the development of a preschooler’s personality. Experiences, experiments, games. compiled by N.V. Nishcheva 2013
  • “Experimental activities in preschool educational institutions” L.I. Odintsova 2013, methodological manual.
  • “Sand Games” , Igor Pelinsky
  • "Experimental activities in preschool educational institutions" . Lesson notes for different age groups. N.V. Nishcheva
  • “Project method in organizing cognitive and research activities in kindergarten . N.V. Nishcheva;
  • Martynova E.A., Suchkova I.M. Organization of experimental activities for children 2-7 years old: thematic planning, recommendations, lesson notes
  • Activities of preschoolers in a children's experimental laboratory. M.P. Kostyuchenko, N.R. Kamalova, publishing house "Teacher"
  • “Elements of sand therapy” - development of young children N.V. Zelentsova-Peshkova
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